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Fig. S1 Western blot analysis showing levels of WRN in normal diploid human fibroblasts (NDF) and NDF transduced with lentiviral vector for the conditional expression of shRNA targeting GFP (shCTR) and WRN (shWRN) at different days (d) after addition of doxycycline (1 μg mL−1).

Fig. S2 (A) 2D-DIGE gel images showing spots (circles) that were picked for MS analysis. (B) Proteins identified by 2D-DIGE analysis, showing relative levels at 3 and 5 days after WRN knockdown compared to control (shCTR).

Fig. S3 Extracts prepared from Wrn−/− and Wrn+/+ MEFs (passage 4) were analyzed by immunoblotting using antibodies against the indicated proteins.

Fig. S4 (A) Growth curves of Hela and MCF7 cells expressing shRNAs for WRN or GFP. One microgram per millilitre doxycycline was added to the media and the growth rate of each cell line was measured by counting viable cells every 2 days. Cells were seeded at a low density, and the medium was changed every 2 days. Values represent the mean ± the standard deviation of three experiments (= 3). (B) Detection of SA-β-gal activity. Hela and MCF7 cells transduced with lentiviruses for the conditional expression of shRNAs targeting WRN or GFP were grown for 3, 6, 9, or 12 days after addition of DOX and were stained for SA-βgal activity as previously described {Li, 2011 #778}. Values are the mean ± the standard deviation of three independent experiments (= 3) carried out in duplicates in which 500 cells were scored for SA-β galactosidase. Student's t test was used to evaluate differences in means between two groups, and < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. (C) Cell cycle profile of Hela cells transduced with lentiviral vectors for the conditional expression of shRNA targeting WRN (shWRN) or GFP (shCTR) before and at days 1, 2 and 3 after induction with doxycycline.

Fig. S5 WRN knockdown in MCF7 cells alters the levels of metabolic enzymes.

Fig. S6 Representative Western blots loaded with serially diluted samples used to assess the levels of G6PD, IDH1, TKTL1, and HIF1α in shCTR and shWRN cells, as shown in the tables of Figures 2, 5, S5 and S8.

Fig. S7 (A) Western blots showing levels of G6PD, IDH1 and TKTL1 in HeLa cells grown in 1% serum before and at 3 and 5 days after induction of shRNAs against WRN or GFP (shCTR). (B) siRNA-mediated WRN knockdown in Hela cells recapitulates the changes in metabolic enzymes observed after expression of shRNAs targeting WRN.

Fig. S8 Changes in the levels of metabolic enzymes in WRN knockdown cancer cells grown under hypoxia.

Fig. S9 (A) GSH levels were measured in Hela cells transduced with lentiviral vectors for the expression of shRNAs against GFP or WRN that were grown in 1% serum in the absence or presence of doxycycline (+dox) for 3 days. Each data point represents the mean ± SD of three biological replicates, and P values were calculated by two-tailed Student's t test. (B) Representative experiment showing oxygen consumption rates in WRN knockdown and control (shCTR) Hela cells. OCR was determined using Seahorse XF-24 Metabolic Flux Analyzer. Vertical lines indicate time of addition of mitochondrial inhibitors: oligomycin (4 μm; ATP synthase inhibitor), FCCP (1 μm; uncoupler), or rotenone (1 μm; complex I inhibitor). In the experiment shown, samples of Hela cells transduced with vector for the expression of shWRN before and after induction with doxycycline as well as control cells transduced with vector for the expression of shGFP (shCTR) after induction with doxycycline. WRN knockdown cells after shRNA induction (solid black line) display higher state III and uncoupled (after the addition of FCCP) rates of mitochondrial respiration than uninduced Hela with shWRN (grey dashed line) and doxycycline induced control cells (shCTR) (grey solid line). (C) Representative confocal microscopy images of Hela cells transduced with lentiviruses for the conditional expression of shRNAs targeting WRN or GFP (shCTR) detecting oxidized nucleoside-8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8HO-dG) or phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX) in the indicated sample.

Fig. S10 Altered metabolism in Wrn knockout MEFs.

Fig. S11 Reduced levels of HIF1α after WRN knockdown in cancer cells.

Fig. S12 Hela cells transduced with lentiviral vectors for the expression of shRNAs against WRN or GFP (shCTR) were grown in the absence or presence of doxycycline (+dox) and in normal media or media supplemented with 2 mm GSH.

Table S1 Gene ontology enrichment analysis software was utilized to assign proteins to biological processes.

acel12181-sup-0002-DataS1.epsimage/eps2103K

Data S1 Experimental procedures.

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