• 1
    Kirkpatrick DL, Kirkpatrick JD. Evaluating Training Programs, 3rd ed. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2006.
  • 2
    Norcini J, Burch V. Workplace-based assessment as an educational tool: AMEE Guide No. 31. Med Teach. 2007; 29:85571.
  • 3
    Norcini JJ. Work-based assessment. BMJ. 2003; 326:7535.
  • 4
    Berk RA. Using the 360 degrees multisource feedback model to evaluate teaching and professionalism. Med Teach. 2009; 31:107380.
  • 5
    Miller GE. The assessment of clinical skills/competence/performance. Acad Med. 1990; 65:S637.
  • 6
    Eva KW, Regehr G. Self-assessment in the health professions: a reformulation and research agenda. Acad Med. 2005; 80:S4654.
  • 7
    McLoughlin C, Lee MJ. Social Software and Participatory Learning: Pedagogical Choices with Technology Affordances in the Web 2.0 Era. Proce-edings Ascilite Singapore 2007. Available at: Accessed Sep 15, 2012.
  • 8
    Kamel Boulos MN, Wheeler S. The emerging Web 2.0 social software: an enabling suite of sociable technologies in health and health care education. Health Info Libr J. 2007; 24:223.
  • 9
    Van De Belt TH, Engelen LJ, Berben SA, Schoonhoven L. Definition of Health 2.0 and Medicine 2.0: a systematic review. J Med Internet Res. 2010; 12:e18.
  • 10
    Bahner DP, Adkins E, Patel N, Donley C, Nagel R, Kman NE. How we use social media to supplement a novel curriculum in medical education. Med Teach. 2012; 34:43944.
  • 11
    Chu SK, Woo M, King RB, Choi S, Cheng M, Koo P. Examining the application of Web 2.0 in medical-related organisations. Health Info Libr J. 2012; 29:4760.
  • 12
    George DR, Dellasega C. Use of social media in graduate-level medical humanities education: two pilot studies from Penn State College of Medicine. Med Teach. 2011; 33:e42934.
  • 13
    Sandars J, Homer M, Pell G, Crocker T. Web 2.0 and social software: the medical student way of e-learning. Med Teach. 2008; 30:30812.
  • 14
    Lemley T, Burnham JF. Web 2.0 tools in medical and nursing school curricula. J Med Libr Assoc. 2009; 97:502.
  • 15
    Moloney JF, Oakley B. Scaling online education: increasing access to higher education. J Asynchron Learn Netw. 2010:14:5570. Available at: Accessed Sep 15, 2012.
  • 16
    U.S. Department of Education. Evaluation of Evidence-based Practices in Online Learning: A Meta-analysis and Review of Online Learning Studies. Available at: Accessed Sep 15, 2012.
  • 17
    Larson CK, Sung CH. Student performance: online versus blended versus face-to-face. J Asynchron Learn Netw. 2009; 13:3142.
  • 18
    Fasse R, Humbert J, Rappold R. Rochester Institute of Technology: analyzing student success. J Asynchron Learn Netw. 2009; 13:3748.
  • 19
    Lovell K, Vignare K. MSU medical colleges blended learning for first year science courses: uniting pedagogy to maximize experience and real world limitations. J Asynchron Learn Netw. 2009; 13:5563.
  • 20
    Howlett D, Vincent T, Gainsborough N, et al. Integration of a case-based online module into an undergraduate curriculum: what is involved and is it effective? E-Learning. 2009; 6:37284.
  • 21
    Burnette K, Ramundo M, Stevenson M, Beeson MS. Evaluation of a web-based asynchronous pediatric emergency medicine learning tool for residents and medical students. Acad Emerg Med. 2009; 16(Suppl 2):S4650.
  • 22
    Gisondi MA, Lu DW, Yen M, et al. Adaptation of EPEC-EM curriculum in a residency with asynchronous learning. West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11:4919.
  • 23
    Lund A, Lam K, Parks P. Disaster medicine online: evaluation of an online, modular, interactive, asynchronous curriculum. CJEM. 2002; 4:40813.
  • 24
    Sadosty AT, Goyal DG, Gene Hern H Jr, Kilian BJ, Beeson MS. Alternatives to the conference status quo: summary recommendations from the 2008 CORD Academic Assembly Conference Alternatives workgroup. Acad Emerg Med. 2009; 16(Suppl 2):S2531.
  • 25
    Ko PY, Scott JM, Mihai A, Grant WD. Comparison of a modified longitudinal simulation-based advanced cardiovascular life support to a traditional advanced cardiovascular life support curriculum in third-year medical students. Teach Learn Med. 2011; 23:32430.
  • 26
    Papageorgiou A, Miles S, Fromage M, Kemmy J, Leinster SJ. Cross-sectional evaluation of a longitudinal consultation skills course at a new UK medical school. BMC Med Educ. 2011; 11:e55.
  • 27
    Hirsh D, Gaufberg E, Ogur B, et al. Educational outcomes of the Harvard Medical School-Cambridge integrated clerkship: a way forward for medical education. Acad Med. 2012; 87:64350.
  • 28
    Ogur B, Hirsh D, Krupat E, Bor D. The Harvard Medical School-Cambridge integrated clerkship: an innovative model of clinical education. Acad Med. 2007; 82:397404.
  • 29
    Poncelet A, Bokser S, Calton B, et al. Development of a longitudinal integrated clerkship at an academic medical center. Med Educ Online. 2011;16:doi: 10.3402/meo.v16i0.5939.
  • 30
    Norris TE, Schaad DC, DeWitt D, Ogur B, Hunt DD, Consortium of Longitudinal Integrated Clerkships. Longitudinal integrated clerkships for medical students: an innovation adopted by medical schools in Australia, Canada, South Africa, and the United States. Acad Med. 2009l; 84:9027.
  • 31
    Drees BM, Arnold L, Jonas HS. The University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine: thirty-five years of experience with a nontraditional approach to medical education. Acad Med. 2007; 82:3619.
  • 32
    Abuhusain H, Chotirmall SH, Hamid N, O'Neill SJ. Prepared for internship? Ir Med J. 2009; 102:824.
  • 33
    Smith CM, Perkins GD, Bullock I, Bion JF. Undergraduate training in the care of the acutely ill patient: a literature review. Intensive Care Med. 2007; 33:9017.
  • 34
    Laack TA, Newman JS, Goyal DG, Torsher LC. A 1-week simulated internship course helps prepare medical students for transition to residency. Simul Healthc. 2010; 5:12732.
  • 35
    Teo AR, Harleman E, O'Sullivan PS, Maa J. The key role of a transition course in preparing medical students for internship. Acad Med. 2011; 86:8605.
  • 36
    Wayne DB, Butter J, Siddall VJ, et al. Mastery learning of advanced cardiac life support skills by internal medicine residents using simulation technology and deliberate practice. J Gen Intern Med. 2006; 21:2516.
  • 37
    Barsuk JH, Shubhada NA, Cohen ER, et al. Mastery learning of temporary hemodialysis catheter insertion by nephrology fellows using simulation technology and deliberate practice. Am J Kidney Dis. 2009; 54:706.
  • 38
    Wayne DB, Barsuk JH, O'Leary KJ, et al. Mastery learning of thoracentesis skills by internal medicine residents using simulation technology and deliberate practice. J Hosp Med. 2008; 3:4854.
  • 39
    Oermann MH, Kardong-Edgren S, Odom-Maryon T, et al. Deliberate practice of motor skills in nursing education: CPR as exemplar. Nurs Educ Perspect. 2011; 32:3115.
  • 40
    Sawyer T, Sierocka-Castaneda A, Chan D, et al. Deliberate practice using simulation improves neonatal resuscitation performance. Simul Healthc. 2011; 6:32736.
  • 41
    Stevens LM, Cooper JB, Raemer DB, et al. Educational program in crisis management for cardiac surgery teams including high realism simulation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2012; 144:1724.
  • 42
    Thomas ET, Williams AL, Reichman EF, et al. Team training in the neonatal resuscitation program for interns: teamwork and quality of resuscitations. Pediatrics. 2010; 125:53946.
  • 43
    Steinemann S, Berg B, Skinner A, et al. In situ, multidisciplinary, simulation-based teamwork training improves early trauma care. J Surg Educ. 2011; 68:4727.
  • 44
    Yee B, Naik VN, Joo HS, et al. Nontechnical skills in anesthesia crisis management with repeated exposure to simulation-based education. Anesthesiology. 2005; 103:2418.
  • 45
    Issenberg SB, McGaghie WC, Petrusa ER, et al. Features and uses of high-fidelity medical simulations that lead to effective learning: a BEME systematic review. Med Teach. 2005; 27:1028.
  • 46
    McGaghie WC, Issenberg SB, Cohen ER, et al. Medical education featuring mastery learning with deliberate practice can lead to better health for individuals and populations. Acad Med. 2011; 86:e89.
  • 47
    Giglioli S, Boet S, De Gaudio AR, et al. Self-directed deliberate practice with virtual fiberoptic intubation improves initial skills for anesthesia residents. Minerva Anestesiologica. 2012; 78:16.
  • 48
    Price J, Naik V, Bodhwani M, et al. A randomized evaluation of simulation training on performance of vascular anastomosis on a high-fidelity in vivo model: the role of deliberate practice. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2011; 142:496503.
  • 49
    Kessler DO, Auerbach M, Pusic M, et al. A randomized trial of simulation-based deliberate practice for infant lumbar puncture skills. Simul Healthc. 2011; 6:197203.
  • 50
    Zendejas B, Cook DA, Hernandez-Irizarry R, et al. Mastery learning simulation-based curriculum for laparoscopic TEP inguinal hernia repair. J Surg Ed. 2012; 69:20814.
  • 51
    Rudolph JW, Simon R, Dufresne RL, et al. There's no such thing as “nonjudgmental” debriefing: a theory and method for debriefing with good judgment. Simul Healthc. 2006; 1:4955.
  • 52
    Zigmont JJ, Kappus LJ, Sudikoff SN. The 3D model of debriefing: defusing, discovering, and deepening. Semin Perinatol. 2011; 35:528.
  • 53
    Kuiper RA, Heinrich C, Matthias A, et al. Debriefing with the OPT model of clinical reasoning during high fidelity patient simulation. Int J Nurs Educ Scholarsh. 2008; 5:Article17.
  • 54
    Raemer D, Anderson M, Cheng A, et al. Research regarding debriefing as part of the learning process. Simul Healthc. 2011; 6(Suppl):S527.
  • 55
    Wayne DB, Didwania A, Feinglass J, et al. Simulation-based education improves quality of care during cardiac arrest team responses at an academic teaching hospital: a case-control study. Chest. 2008; 133:5661.
  • 56
    Cohen J, Cohen SA, Vora KC, et al. Multicenter, randomized, controlled trial of virtual-reality simulator training in acquisition of competency in colonoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc. 2006; 64:3618.
  • 57
    Barsuk JH, Cohen ER, McGaghie WC, et al. Long-term retention of central venous catheter insertion skills after simulation-based mastery learning. Acad Med. 2010; 85(10 Suppl):S912.
  • 58
    Crofts JF, Bartlett C, Ellis D, et al. Management of shoulder dystocia: skill retention 6 and 12 months after training. Obstet Gynecol. 2007; 110:106974.
  • 59
    Draycott TJ, Crofts JF, Ash JP, et al. Improving neonatal outcome through practical shoulder dystocia training. Obstet Gynecol. 2008; 112:1420.
  • 60
    Phipps MG, Lindquist DG, McConaughey E, et al. Outcomes from a labor and delivery team training program with simulation component. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2012; 206:39.
  • 61
    Zendejas B, Cook DA, Bingener J, et al. Simulation-based mastery learning improves patient outcomes in laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair: a randomized controlled trial. Ann Surg. 2011; 254:5029.
  • 62
    Barsuk JH, McGaghie WC, Cohen ER, et al. Simulation-based mastery learning reduces complications during central venous catheter insertion in a medical intensive care unit. Crit Care Med. 2009; 37:2697701.
  • 63
    Cohen ER, Feinglass J, Barsuk JH, et al. Cost savings from reduced catheter-related bloodstream infection after simulation-based education for residents in a medical intensive care unit. Simul Healthc. 2010; 5:98102.
  • 64
    Matheson C. The educational value and effectiveness of lectures. Clin Teach. 2008; 5:21821.
  • 65
    Olson CA, Tooman TR. Didactic CME and practice change: don't throw that baby out quite yet. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2012; 17:44151.
  • 66
    Carter MB, Wesley G, Larson GM. Lecture versus standardized patient interaction in the surgical clerkship: a randomized prospective cross-over study. Am J Surg. 2006; 191:2627.
  • 67
    Carter MB, Wesley G, Larson GM. Didactic lecture versus instructional standardized patient interaction in the surgical clerkship. Am J Surg. 2005; 189:2438.
  • 68
    Subramanian A, Timberlake M, Mittakanti H, Lara M, Brandt ML. Novel educational approach for medical students: improved retention rates using interactive medical software compared with traditional lecture-based format. J Surg Educ. 2012; 69:2536.
  • 69
    Khan MN, Telmesani A, Alkhotani A, Elzouki A, Edrees B, Alsulimani MH. Comparison of jeopardy game format versus traditional lecture format as a teaching methodology in medical education. Saudi Med J. 2011; 32:11726.
  • 70
    McCoy CE, Menchine M, Anderson C, Kollen R, Langdorf MI, Lotfipour S. Prospective randomized crossover study of simulation vs. didactics for teaching medical students the assessment and management of critically ill patients. J Emerg Med. 2011; 40:44855.
  • 71
    Haney M, Silvestri S, Van Dillen C, Ralls G, Cohen E, Papa L. A comparison of tele-education versus conventional lectures in wound care knowledge and skill acquisition. J Telemed Telecare. 2012; 18:7981.
  • 72
    Bensalem-Owen M, Chau DF, Sardam SC, Fahy BG. Education research: evaluating the use of podcasting for residents during EEG instruction: a pilot study. Neurology. 2011; 77:e424.
  • 73
    Wang CL, Schopp JG, Petscavage JM, Paladin AM, Richardson ML, Bush WH. Prospective randomized comparison of standard didactic lecture versus high-fidelity simulation for radiology resident contrast reaction management training. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011; 196:128895.
  • 74
    Behar S, Upperman JS, Ramirez M, Dorey F, Nager A. Training medical staff for pediatric disaster victims: a comparison of different teaching methods. Am J Disaster Med. 2008; 3:18999.
  • 75
    Chenkin J, Lee S, Huynh T, Bandiera G. Procedures can be learned on the Web: a randomized study of ultrasound-guided vascular access training. Acad Emerg Med. 2008; 15:94954.
  • 76
    Diachun LL, Dumbrell AC, Byrne K, Esbaugh J. … But does it stick? Evaluating the durability of improved knowledge following an undergraduate experiential geriatrics learning session. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006; 54:696701.
  • 77
    Hoag K, Lillie J, Hoppe R. Piloting case-based instruction in a didactic clinical immunology course. Clin Lab Sci. 2005; 18:21320.
  • 78
    White M, Michaud G, Pachev G, Lirenman D, Kolenc A, FitzGerald JM. Randomized trial of problem-based versus didactic seminars for disseminating evidence-based guidelines on asthma management to primary care physicians. J Contin Educ Health Prof. 2004; 24:23743.
  • 79
    Zitzmann MB. Comparing the learning outcomes of lecture and self-instruction methods in a senior clinical laboratory science course. Clin Lab Sci. 1996; 9:198201.
  • 80
    Abraham GJ, Dhume VG, Diniz RS. Comparison of didactic lecture, self-reading and self-instruction as learning methods in medical students of western India. Med Educ. 1981; 15:2225.
  • 81
    Agee N, Komenaka IK, Drachman D, Bouton ME, Caruso DM, Foster KN. The effectiveness of grand rounds lectures in a community-based teaching hospital. J Surg Educ. 2009; 66:3616.
  • 82
    Shiroma PR, Massa AA, Alarcon RD. Using game format to teach psychopharmacology to medical students. Med Teach. 2011; 33:15660.
  • 83
    Hessheimer HM, Rogo EJ, Howlett B. Use of questioning during lectures in a dental hygiene didactic course. J Dent Educ. 2011; 75:107383.
  • 84
    Rubio E, Bassignani MJ, White MA, Brant WE. Effect of an audience response system on resident learning and retention of lecture material. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2008; 190:W31922.
  • 85
    Costa ML, van Rensburg L, Rushton N. Does teaching style matter? A randomized trial of group discussion versus lectures in orthopaedic undergraduate teaching. Med Educ. 2007; 41:2147.
  • 86
    Bryner CL Jr. Learning as a function of lecture length. Fam Med. 1995; 27:37982.
  • 87
    Markova T, Roth LM, Monsur J. Synchronous distance learning as an effective and feasible method for delivering residency didactics. Fam Med. 2005; 37:5705.
  • 88
    Solomon DJ, Ferenchick GS, Laird-Fick HS, Kavanaugh K. A randomized trial comparing digital and live lecture formats. BMC Med Educ. 2004; 4:e27.
  • 89
    Kelly PA, Haidet P, Schneider V, Searle N, Seidel CL, Richards BF. A comparison of in-class learner engagement across lecture, problem-based learning and team learning using the STROBE classroom observation tool. Teach Learn Med. 2004; 17:1128.
  • 90
    Knowles MS. Andragogy, not pedagogy. Adult Leadership. 1968;16:350352, 386.
  • 91
    Neufeld VR, Barrows HS. The McMaster philosophy: an approach to medical education. J Med Educ. 1974; 49:104050.
  • 92
    Muller S (Chairman). Physicians for the twenty-first century: report of the project panel on the general professional education of the physician and college preparation for medicine. J Med Educ. 1984; 59(11 Pt 2):1208.
  • 93
    Barrows HS. A taxonomy of problem-based learning methods. Med Educ. 1986; 20:4816.
  • 94
    Berkson L. Problem-based learning: have the expectations been met? Acad Med. 1993; 68:S7988.
  • 95
    Vernon DT, Blake RL. Does problem-based learning work? A meta-analysis of evaluative research. Acad Med. 1993; 68:55063.
  • 96
    Albanese MA, Mitchell S. Problem-based learning: a review of literature on its outcomes and implementation issues. Acad Med. 1993; 68:5281.
  • 97
    Norman GR, Schmidt HG. Effectiveness of problem-based learning curricula: theory, practice and paper darts. Med Educ. 2000; 34:7218.
  • 98
    Colliver JA. Effectiveness of problem-based learning curricula: research and theory. Acad Med. 2000; 75:25966.
  • 99
    Distlehort LH, Dawson E, Robbs RS, Barrows HS. Problem-based learning outcomes: the glass half-full. Acad Med. 2005; 80:2949.
  • 100
    Blumberg P, Michael JA. Development of self-directed learning behaviours in a partially teacher-directed problem-based learning curriculum. Teach Learn Med. 1992; 4:38.
  • 101
    Haidet P, O'Malley KJ, Richards B. An initial experience with “team learning” in medical education. Acad Med. 2002; 77:404.
  • 102
    Touchet BK, Coon KA. A pilot use of team-based learning in psychiatry resident psychodynamic psychotherapy education. Acad Psych. 2005; 29:2936.
  • 103
    Haidet P, Morgan RO, O'Malley K, Moran BJ, Richards BF. A controlled trial of active versus passive learning strategies in a large group setting. Adv Health Sciences Educ. 2004; 9:1527.
  • 104
    Searle NS, Haidet P, Kelley A, Schneider VF, Seidel CL, Richards BF. Team learning in medical education: initial experience at ten institutions. Acad Med. 2003; 78:S558.