Professionalism is one of the six Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies on which emergency medicine (EM) residents are assessed. However, very few assessment tools exist that have been rigorously evaluated in this population. One goal of the 2012 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference on education research in EM was to develop a research agenda for testing and developing tools to assess professionalism in EM residents. A literature review was performed to identify existing assessment tools. Recommendations on future research directions were presented at the consensus conference, and an agenda was developed.