• 1
    Kline JA, Walthall JD. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010: summary, analysis, and opportunities for advocacy for the academic emergency physician. Acad Emerg Med. 2010; 17:e6974.
  • 2
    The White House. Health Care Reform in Action. Available at: Accessed Oct 24, 2012.
  • 3
    LaCalle E, Rabin E. Frequent users of emergency departments: the myths, the data, and the policy implications. Ann Emerg Med. 2010; 56:428.
  • 4
    Jamieson D. Health Care's Frequent Fliers: The Treatment of Kenny Farnsworth. The Washington Post. 2009 November 29. Available at: Accessed Oct 24, 2012.
  • 5
    Handel DA, McConnell KJ, Wallace N, Gallia C. How much does emergency department use affect the cost of Medicaid programs? Ann Emerg Med. 2008; 51:61421.
  • 6
    Olejarz D. Frequent Users Wear Down Emergency Department Physicians. Med News Today. 2011. Available at: Accessed Oct 24, 2012.
  • 7
    Fuda KK, Immekus R. Frequent users of Massachusetts emergency departments: a statewide analysis. Ann Emerg Med. 2006; 48:916.
  • 8
    Hunt KA, Weber EJ, Showstack JA, Colby DC, Callaham ML. Characteristics of frequent users of emergency departments. Ann Emerg Med. 2006; 48:18.
  • 9
    Pines JM, Asplin BR, Kaji AH, et al. Frequent users of emergency department services: gaps in knowledge and a proposed research agenda. Acad Emerg Med. 2011; 18:e649.
  • 10
    Bernstein SL. Frequent emergency department visitors: the end of inappropriateness. Ann Emerg Med. 2006; 48:1820.
  • 11
    Weber EJ. Defining frequent use: the numbers no longer count. Ann Emerg Med. 2012; 60:334.
  • 12
    Leukefeld CG, Hiller ML, Webster JM, et al. A prospective examination of high-cost health services utilization among drug using prisoners reentering the community. J Behav Health Serv Res. 2006; 33:7385.
  • 13
    Meyer J, Chen N, Springer S. HIV treatment in the criminal justice system: critical knowledge and intervention gaps. AIDS Res Treatm. 2011; 2011:e680617.
  • 14
    Springer S, Spaulding A, Meyer J, Altice F. Public health implications for adequate transitional care for HIV-infected prisoners: five essential components. Clin Infect Dis. 2011; 53:46979.
  • 15
    Fazel S, Baillargeon J. The health of prisoners. Lancet. 2011; 277:95665.
  • 16
    Leach D, Oliver P. Drug-related death following release from prison: a brief review of the literature with recommendations for practice. Curr Drug Abuse Rev. 2011; 4:2927.
  • 17
    Lim S, Seligson AL, Parvez FM, et al. Risks of drug-related death, suicide, and homicide during the immediate post-release period among people released from New York City jails, 2001-2005. Am J Epidemiol. 2012; 175:51926.
  • 18
    Springer S, Pesanti E, Hodges J, Macura T, Doros G, Altice F. Effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected prisoners: reincarceration and the lack of sustained benefit after release to the community. Clin Infect Dis. 2004; 38:175460.
  • 19
    Rosen DL, Schoenbach VJ, Wohl DA. All-cause and cause-specific mortality among men released from state prison, 1980-2005. Am J Public Health. 2008; 98:227884.
  • 20
    Baillargeon J, Giordano T, Rich J, et al. Accessing antiretroviral therapy following release from prison. JAMA. 2009; 301:84857.
  • 21
    Baillargeon J, Giordano T, Harzke A, Baillargeon G, Rich J, Paar D. Enrollment in outpatient care among newly released prison inmates with HIV infection. Public Health Rep. 2010; 125(Suppl 1):6471.
  • 22
    Baillargeon J, Giordano T, Harzke A, et al. Predictors of reincarceration and disease progression among released HIV-infected inmates. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2010; 24:38994.
  • 23
    Masson C, Sorensen J, Phibbs C, Okin R. Predictors of medical service utilization among individuals with co-occurring HIV infection and substance abuse disorders. AIDS Care. 2004; 16:74455.
  • 24
    Kidder D, Wolitski R, Campsmith M, Nakamura G. Health status, health care use, medication use, and medication adherence among homeless and housed people living with HIV/AIDS. Am J Public Health. 2007; 97:223845.
  • 25
    Cunningham WE, Sohler NL, Tobias C, et al. Health services utilization for people with HIV infection: comparison of a population targeted for outreach with the U.S. population in care. Med Care. 2006; 44:103847.
  • 26
    Palepu A, Horton NJ, Tibbetts N, Dukes K, Meli S, Samet JH. Substance abuse treatment and emergency department utilization among a cohort of HIV-infected persons with alcohol problems. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2003; 25:3742.
  • 27
    Chen NE, Meyer JP, Avery AK, et al. Adherence to HIV treatment and care among previously homeless jail detainees. AIDS Behav. November 2011.
  • 28
    Diederichs C, Berger K, Bartels DB. The measurement of multiple chronic diseases–a systematic review on existing multimorbidity indices. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2011; 66:30111.
  • 29
    Andersen R. Behavior Models of Families' Use of Health Services. Chicago, IL: Center for Health Administration Studies, University of Chicago, 1968.
  • 30
    Aday LA, Awe WC. Health Services Utilization Model. In: Gochman DS (Ed). Handbook of Health Behavior Research, Vol 1. Personal and Social Determinants. New York, NY: Plenum Publishing Company, 1997.
  • 31
    Gelberg L, Andersen R, Leake B. The behavioral model for vulnerable populations: application to medical care use and outcomes for homeless people. Health Serv Res. 2000; 34:1273302.
  • 32
    Altice F, Saber-Tehrani A, Qiu J, Herme M. DAART Is Superior to Self-administered Therapy Among Released HIV+ Prisoners: Results From a Randomized Controlled Trial [Abstract]. 18th Conference on Retroviruses and Oportunistic Infections. Boston, MA, 2011.
  • 33
    Saber-Tehrani AS, Springer SA, Qiu J, Herme M, Wickersham J, Altice FL. Rationale, study design and sample characteristics of a randomized controlled trial of directly administered antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected prisoners transitioning to the community - a potential conduit to improved HIV treatment outcomes. Contemp Clin Trials. 2011; 33:43644.
  • 34
    Springer S, Chen S, Altice F. Improved HIV and substance abuse treatment outcomes for released HIV-infected prisoners: the impact of buprenorphine treatment. J Urban Health. 2010; 87:592602.
  • 35
    Springer SA, Qiu J, Saber-Tehrani AS, Altice FL. Retention on buprenorphine is associated with high levels of maximal viral suppression among HIV-infected opioid dependent released prisoners. PLoS ONE. 2012; 7:e38335.
  • 36
    McLellan A, Luborsky L, Cacciola J, et al. New data from the Addiction Severity Index. Reliability and validity in three centers. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1985; 173:41223.
  • 37
    McLellan AT, Kushner H, Metzger D, et al. The fifth edition of the addiction severity index. J Subst Abuse Treat. 1992; 9:199213.
  • 38
    Najavits L, Weiss R, Reif S, et al. The Addiction Severity Index as a screen for trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. J Studies Alcohol. 1998; 59:5662.
  • 39
    Reinert D, Allen J. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT): a review of recent research. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2002; 26:2729.
  • 40
    Reinert D, Allen J. The alcohol use disorders identification test: an update of research findings. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2007; 31:18599.
  • 41
    Rush A, Trivedi M, Ibrahim H, et al. The 16-Item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS), clinician rating (QIDS-C), and self-report (QIDS-SR): a psychometric evaluation in patients with chronic major depression. Biol Psychiatry. 2003; 54:57383.
  • 42
    Huba G, Melchior L, Staff of the Measurement Group, and HRSA/HAB's Special Projects of National Significance Cooperative Agreement Steering CommitteeModule 46: Social Support Form. Culver City, CA: The Measurement Group, 1996.
  • 43
    Anderson L, Dedrick R. Development of the Trust in Physician scale: a measure to assess interpersonal trust in patient-physician relationships. Psychol Rep. 1990; 67:1091100.
  • 44
    Freburger JK, Callahan LF, Currey SS, Anderson LA. Use of the Trust in Physician Scale in patients with rheumatic disease: psychometric properties and correlates of trust in the rheumatologist. Arthritis Rheum. 2003; 49:518.
  • 45
    Quality Metric. SF-36v2 Health Survey. Available at: Accessed Oct 19, 2012.
  • 46
    Berger BE, Ferrans CE, Lashley FR. Measuring stigma in people with HIV: psychometric assessment of the HIV stigma scale. Res Nurs Health. 2001; 24:51829.
  • 47
    Altice F, Kamarulzaman A, Soriano V, Schechter M, Friedland G. Treatment of medical, psychiatric, and substance-use comorbidities in people infected with HIV who use drugs. Lancet. 2010; 376:36787.
  • 48
    Akaike H. Information theory as an extension of the maximum likelihood principle. In: Petrov BN, Csaki F (eds). Second International Symposium on Information Theory. Budapest, Hungary: Akademiai Kiado, 1973, pp 26781.
  • 49
    Raftery AE. Bayesian Model Selection in Social Research. In: Raftery AE, ed. Sociological Methodology. Oxford, UK: Blackwell, 1995, pp 11164.
  • 50
    State of Connecticut, Department of Correction. January 1, 2011 Statistics. Available at: = 1505&q = 471438. Accessed Oct 19, 2012.
  • 51
    Bae JW, Guyer W, Grimm K, Altice FL. Medication persistence in the treatment of HIV infection: a review of the literature and implications for future clinical care and research. AIDS. 2011; 25:27990.
  • 52
    Byrne M, Murphy AW, Plunkett PK, McGee HM, Murray A, Bury G. Frequent attenders to an emergency department: a study of primary health care use, medical profile, and psychosocial characteristics. Ann Emerg Med. 2003; 41:30918.
  • 53
    Meyer JP, Qiu J, Chen NE, Larkin GL, Altice FL. Emergency department use by released prisoners with HIV: an observational longitudinal study. PLoS ONE. 2012; 7:e42416.
  • 54
    Larkin GL, Claassen CA, Emond JA, Pelletier AJ, Camargo CA Jr. Trends in U.S. emergency department visits for mental health conditions, 1992 to 2001. Psychiatr Serv. 2005; 56:6717.
  • 55
    Binswanger IA, Merrill JO, Krueger PM, White MC, Booth RE, Elmore JG. Gender differences in chronic medical, psychiatric, and substance-dependence disorders among jail inmates. Am J Public Health. 2010; 100:47682.
  • 56
    Richie BE, Freudenberg N, Page J. Reintegrating women leaving jail into urban communities: a description of a model program. J Urban Health. 2001; 78:290303.
  • 57
    Institute on Women and Criminal Justice. Quick Facts: Women and Criminal Justice - 2009. Available at: Accessed Oct 19, 2012.
  • 58
    Spaulding A, Arriola K, Ramos K, et al. Enhancing linkages to HIV primary care in jail settings: report on a consultants' meeting. J Correctional Health Care. 2007; 13:93128.
  • 59
    Draine J, Ahuja D, Altice FL, et al. Strategies to enhance linkages between care for HIV/AIDS in jail and community settings. AIDS Care. 2011; 23:36677.
  • 60
    Fontana L, Beckerman A. Recently released with HIV/AIDS: primary care treatment needs and experiences. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2007; 18:699714.
  • 61
    Harzke A, Ross M, Scott D. Predictors of post-release primary care utilization among HIV-positive prison inmates: a pilot study. AIDS Care. 2006; 18:290301.
  • 62
    Stephenson B, Wohl D, Golin C, Tien H, Stewart P, Kaplan A. Effect of release from prison and re-incarceration on the viral loads of HIV-infected individuals. Public Health Rep. 2005; 120:848.
  • 63
    Althoff A, Zelenev A, Meyer J, et al. Correlates of retention in HIV care after release from jail: results from a multisite study. AIDS Behav. 2012; Nov 18 [Epub ahead of print].
  • 64
    Wohl D, Scheyett A, Golin C, et al. Intensive case management before and after prison release is no more effective than comprehensive pre-release discharge planning in linking HIV-infected prisoners to care: a randomized trial. AIDS Behav. 2011; 15:35664.
  • 65
    Althaus F, Paroz S, Hugli O, et al. Effectiveness of interventions targeting frequent users of emergency departments: a systematic review. Ann Emerg Med. 2011; 58:4152.
  • 66
    Academic ED SBIRT Research Collaborative. The impact of screening, brief intervention and referral for treatment in emergency department patients' alcohol use: a 3-, 6- and 12-month follow-up. Alcohol Alcohol. 2010; 45:5149.
  • 67
    Schwarz R, Zelenev A, Bruce RD, Altice FL. Retention on buprenorphine treatment reduces emergency department utilization, but not hospitalization, among treatment-seeking patients with opioid dependence. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2012; 43:4517.
  • 68
    Pollack HA, Khoshnood K, Blankenship KM, Altice FL. The impact of needle exchange-based health services on emergency department use. J Gen Intern Med. 2002; 17:3418.