SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Lloyd-Jones D, Adams R, Carnethon M, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics–2009 update: a report from the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Circulation. 2009; 119:e21181.
  • 2
    Schappert SM, Burt CW. Ambulatory care visits to physician offices, hospital outpatient departments, and emergency departments: United States, 2001–02. Vital Health Stat 13. 2006; (159):166.
  • 3
    Hugli O, Braun JE, Kim S, Pelletier AJ, Camargo CA Jr. United States emergency department visits for acute decompensated heart failure, 1992 to 2001. Am J Cardiol. 2005; 96:153742.
  • 4
    Canadian Government. Statistics Canada. Available at: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/start-debut-eng.html. Accessed Oct 20, 2012.
  • 5
    Tsuyuki RT, Shibata MC, Nilsson C, Hervas-Malo M. Contemporary burden of illness of congestive heart failure in Canada. Can J Cardiol. 2003; 19:4368.
  • 6
    Lee DS, Stukel TA, Austin PC, et al. Improved outcomes with early collaborative care of ambulatory heart failure patients discharged from the emergency department. Circulation. 2010; 122:180614.
  • 7
    McAlister FA, Lawson FM, Teo KK, Armstrong PW. A systematic review of randomized trials of disease management programs in heart failure. Am J Med. 2001; 110:37884.
  • 8
    Ezekowitz JA, Bakal JA, Kaul P, Westerhout CM, Armstrong PW. Acute heart failure in the emergency department: short and long-term outcomes of elderly patients with heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail. 2008; 10:30814.
  • 9
    Lee DS, Schull MJ, Alter DA, et al. Early deaths in patients with heart failure discharged from the emergency department: a population-based analysis. Circ Heart Fail. 2010; 3:22835.
  • 10
    Arnold JM, Howlett JG, Dorian P, et al. Canadian Cardiovascular Society Consensus Conference recommendations on heart failure update 2007: prevention, management during intercurrent illness or acute decompensation, and use of biomarkers. Can J Cardiol. 2007; 23:2145.
  • 11
    Dickstein K, Cohen-Solal A, Filippatos G, et al. ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2008: the Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute and Chronic Heart Failure 2008 of the European Society of Cardiology. Developed in collaboration with the Heart Failure Association of the ESC (HFA) and endorsed by the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM). Eur Heart J. 2008; 29:2388442.
  • 12
    Cowie MR, Wood DA, Coats AJS, et al. Survival of patients with a new diagnosis of heart failure: a population based study. Heart. 2000; 83:50510.
  • 13
    The Task Force on Heart Failure of the European Society of Cardiology. Guidelines for the diagnosis of heart failure. Eur Heart J. 1995; 16:74151.
  • 14
    Fraticelli A, Gesuita R, Vespa A, Paciaroni E. Congestive heart failure in the elderly requiring hospital admission. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 1996; 23:22538.
  • 15
    Auble TE, Hsieh M, Gardner W, Cooper GF, Stone RA, McCausland JB. A prediction rule to identify low-risk patients with heart failure. Acad Emerg Med. 2005; 12:51421.
  • 16
    Fonarow GC, Adams KF, Abraham WT, et al. Risk stratification for in-hospital mortality in acutely decompensated heart failure. JAMA. 2005; 293:57280.
  • 17
    Aronson D, Mittleman MA, Burger AJ. Elevated blood urea nitrogen level as a predictor of mortality in patients admitted for decompensated heart failure. Am J Med. 2004; 116:46673.
  • 18
    Lee DS, Austin PC, Rouleau JL, Liu PP, Naimark D, Tu JV. Predicting mortality among patients hospitalized for heart failure. JAMA. 2003; 290:25817.
  • 19
    Hsieh M, Auble TE, Yealy DM. Predicting the future: can this patient with acute congestive heart failure be safely discharged from the emergency department? Ann Emerg Med. 2002; 39:1819.
  • 20
    Enright PL, Sherrill DL. Reference equations for the six-minute walk in healthy adults. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998; 158:13847.
  • 21
    Enright PL. The six-minute walk test. Respir Care. 2003; 48:7835.
  • 22
    Enright PL, McBurnie MA, Bittner V, et al. The 6-min walk test: a quick measure of functional status in elderly adults. Chest. 2003; 123:38798.
  • 23
    Curtis JP, Rathore SS, Wang Y, Krumholz HM. The association of 6-minute walk performance and outcomes in stable outpatients with heart failure. J Cardiac Failure. 2004; 10:914.
  • 24
    Brooks D, Parson J, Tran D, et al. The two-minute walk test as a measure of functional capacity in cardiac surgery patients. Arch Phys Med Rehab. 2004; 86:152530.
  • 25
    Solway S, Brooks D, Lacasse Y, Thomas S. A qualitative systematic overview of the measurement properties of functional walk tests used in the cardiorespiratory domain. Chest. 2001; 119:25670.
  • 26
    Sciurba F, Criner GJ, Lee SM, et al. Six-minute walk distance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003; 167:15227.
  • 27
    Pan AM, Stiell IG, Clement CM, Acheson J, Aaron SD. Feasibility of a structured 3-minute walk test as a clinical decision tool for patients presenting to the emergency department with acute dyspnea. Emerg Med J. 2009; 26:27882.
  • 28
    Alpert JS, Thygesen K, Antman E, Bassan JP. Myocardial infarction redefined - a consensus document of The Joint European Society of Cardiology/American College of Cardiology Committee for the redefinition of myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000; 36:95969.
  • 29
    Donders AR, van der Heijden GJ, Stijnen T, Moons KG. Review: a gentle introduction to imputation of missing values. J Clin Epidemiol. 2006; 59:108791.
  • 30
    Little RJ, Rubin DB. Statistical Analysis With Missing Data. 2nd ed. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 2002.
  • 31
    Steyerberg EW, Harrell FE Jr, Borsboom GJ, Eijkemans MJ, Vergouwe Y, Habbema JD. Internal validation of predictive models: efficiency of some procedures for logistic regression analysis. J Clin Epidemiol. 2001; 54:77481.
  • 32
    Le Gal G, Righini M, Roy PM, et al. Prediction of pulmonary embolism in the emergency department: the revised Geneva score. Ann Intern Med. 2006; 144:16571.
  • 33
    Efron B, Tibshirani R. Bootstrap methods for standard errors, confidence intervals, and other measures of statistical accuracy. Stat Sci. 1986; (1):5477.
  • 34
    Brophy JM, Deslauriers G, Boucher B, Rouleau JL. The hospital course and short term prognosis of patients presenting to the emergency department with decompensated congestive heart failure. Can J Cardiol. 1993; 9:21924.
  • 35
    Hsieh M, Auble TE, Yealy DM. Validation of the acute heart failure index. Ann Emerg Med. 2008; 51:3744.
  • 36
    Van Spall HG, Atzema C, Schull MJ, et al. Prediction of emergent heart failure death by semi-quantitative triage risk stratification. PLoS One. 2011; 6:e23065.
  • 37
    Peacock WF, De Marco T, Fonarow GC, et al. Cardiac troponin and outcome in acute heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2008; 358:211726.
  • 38
    Wang NC, Maggioni AP, Konstam MA, et al. Clinical implications of QRS duration in patients hospitalized with worsening heart failure and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. JAMA. 2008; 299:265666.
  • 39
    Fonarow GC, Abraham WT, Albert NM, et al. Factors identified as precipitating hospital admissions for heart failure and clinical outcomes: findings from OPTIMIZE-HF. Arch Intern Med. 2008; 168:84754.
  • 40
    Mueller C, Scholer A, Laule-Kilian K, et al. Use of B-type natriuretic peptide in the evaluation and management of acute dyspnea. N Engl J Med. 2004; 350:64754.
  • 41
    Maisel AS, Krishnaswamy P, Nowak RM, et al. Rapid measurement of B-type natriuretic peptide in the emergency diagnosis of heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2002; 347:1617.
  • 42
    Harrison A, Morrison LK, Krishnaswamy P, et al. B-type natriuretic peptide predicts future cardiac events in patients presenting to the emergency department with dyspnea. Ann Emerg Med. 2002; 39:1318.
  • 43
    Maisel A, Hollander JE, Guss D, et al. Primary results of the Rapid Emergency Department Heart Failure Outpatient Trial (REDHOT). A multicenter study of B-type natriuretic peptide levels, emergency department decision making, and outcomes in patients presenting with shortness of breath. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004; 44:132833.
  • 44
    Januzzi JL Jr, Sakhuja R, O'Donoghue M, et al. Utility of amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide testing for prediction of 1-year mortality in patients with dyspnea treated in the emergency department. Arch Intern Med. 2006; 166:31520.
  • 45
    Steinhart B, Thorpe KE, Bayoumi AM, Moe G, Januzzi JL Jr, Mazer CD. Improving the diagnosis of acute heart failure using a validated prediction model. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009; 54:15151.
  • 46
    Schneider HG, Lam L, Lokuge A, et al. B-type natriuretic peptide testing, clinical outcomes, and health services use in emergency department patients with dyspnea: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2009; 150:36571.
  • 47
    Moe GW, Howlett J, Januzzi JL, Zowall H. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide testing improves the management of patients with suspected acute heart failure: primary results of the Canadian prospective randomized multicenter IMPROVE-CHF study. Circulation. 2007; 115:310310.
  • 48
    Pfisterer M, Buser P, Rickli H, et al. BNP-guided vs. symptom-guided heart failure therapy: the Trial of Intensified vs Standard Medical Therapy in Elderly Patients With Congestive Heart Failure (TIME-CHF) randomized trial. JAMA. 2009; 301:38392.
  • 49
    Yealy DM, Hsieh M. BNP is not a value-added routine test in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 2009; 53:3879.
  • 50
    Murray H, Cload B, Collier CP, Sivilotti ML. Potential impact of N-terminal pro-BNP testing on the emergency department evaluation of acute dyspnea. Can J Emerg Med. 2006; 8:2518.
  • 51
    Hohl CM. Should natriuretic peptide testing be incorporated into emergency medicine practice? (Commentary). Can J Emerg Med 2006; 8:25961.
  • 52
    Vittinghoff E, McCulloch CE. Relaxing the rule of ten events per variable in logistic and Cox regression. Am J Epidemiol. 2007; 165:7108.