• 1
    Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians and the National Emergency Nurses Affiliation. Joint position statement: access to acute care in the setting of emergency department overcrowding. CJEM. 2003; 5:816.
  • 2
    Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians and National Emergency Nurses Affiliation. Joint position statement on emergency department overcrowding. CJEM. 2001; 3:824.
  • 3
    Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians. Position Statement on Emergency Department Overcrowding. Available at: Accessed Oct 20, 2012.
  • 4
    Rowe B, Bond K, Ospina M, et al. Frequency, determinants, and impact of overcrowding in Canada: [Technology Report No. 67.3]. Ottawa (ON): Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health, 2006.
  • 5
    Institute of Medicine, Committee on the Future of Emergency Care in the United States Health System. Hospital-Based Emergency Care: At the Breaking Point. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2006.
  • 6
    Kellermann AL. Crisis in the emergency department. NEJM. 2006; 28:13003.
  • 7
    Gallagher EJ, Lynn SG. The etiology of medical gridlock: causes of emergency department overcrowding in New York City. J Emerg Med. 1990; 8:78590.
  • 8
    Andrulis DP, Kellermann A, Hintz EA, et al. Emergency departments and crowding in United States teaching hospitals. Ann Emerg Med. 1991; 20:890986.
  • 9
    Feferman I, Cornell C. How we solved the overcrowding problem in our emergency department. CMAJ. 1989; 140:2736.
  • 10
    Krochman P, Riley TA. Increased health care costs associated with ED overcrowding. Am J Emerg Med. 1994; 2:2656.
  • 11
    Derlet RW, Richards JR. Overcrowding in the nation's emergency departments: complex causes and disturbing effects. Ann Emerg Med. 2000; 35:638.
  • 12
    Trzeciak S, Rivers EP. Emergency department overcrowding in the United States: an emerging threat to patient safety and public health. Emerg Med J. 2003; 20:4025.
  • 13
    Bond K, Ospina MB, Blitz S, et al. Frequency, determinants, and impact of overcrowding in emergency departments in Canada: a national survey. Healthc Q. 2007; 10:3240.
  • 14
    Hoot NR, Aronsky D. Systematic review of emergency department crowding: causes, effects, and solutions. Ann Emerg Med. 2008; 52:12636.
  • 15
    Moskop JC, Sklar DP, Geiderman JM, Schears RM, Bookman KJ. Emergency department crowding: part 1–concepts, causes, and moral consequences. Ann Emerg Med. 2009; 53:6127.
  • 16
    Bernstein SL, Aronsky D, Duseja R, et al. Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, Emergency Department Crowding Task Force. The effect of emergency department crowding on clinically oriented outcomes. Acad Emerg Med. 2009; 16:110.
  • 17
    Fee C, Weber EJ, Maak CA, Bacchetti P. Effect of emergency department crowding on time to antibiotics in patients admitted with community-acquired pneumonia. Ann Emerg Med. 2007; 50:5019.
  • 18
    Pines JM, Localio AR, Hollander JE, et al. The impact of emergency department crowding measures on time to antibiotics for patients with community acquired pneumonia. Ann Emerg Med. 2007; 50:5106.
  • 19
    Pines JM, Hollander JE. Emergency department crowding is associated with poor care for patients with severe pain. Ann Emerg Med. 2008; 51:15.
  • 20
    Diercks DB, Roe MT, Chen AY, et al. Prolonged emergency department stays of non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction patients are associated with worse adherence to the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines for management and increased adverse events. Ann Emerg Med. 2007; 50:48996.
  • 21
    Pines JM, Hollander JE, Localio AR, Metlay JP. The association between emergency department crowding and hospital performance on antibiotic timing for pneumonia and percutaneous intervention for myocardial infarction. Acad Emerg Med. 2006; 13:8738.
  • 22
    Richardson DB. Increase in patient mortality at 10 days associated with emergency department overcrowding. Med J Aust. 2006; 184:2136.
  • 23
    Sprivulis PC, da Silva JA, Jacobs IG, et al. The association between hospital overcrowding and mortality among patients admitted via Western Australian emergency departments. Med J Aust. 2006; 184:20812.
  • 24
    Cowan RM, Trzeciak S. Clinical review: emergency department overcrowding and the potential impact on the critically ill. Crit Care. 2005; 9:2915.
  • 25
    Schull MJ, Vermeulen M, Slaughter G, Morrison L, Daly P. Emergency department crowding and thromboloysis delays in acute myocardial infarction. Ann Emerg Med. 2004; 44:57785.
  • 26
    Viccellio A, Santora C, Singer AJ, Thode HC Jr, Henry MC. The association between transfer of emergency department boarders to inpatient hallways and mortality: a 4-year experience. Ann Emerg Med. 2009; 54:48791.
  • 27
    Singer AJ, Thode HC Jr, Viccellio P, Pines JM. The association between length of ED boarding and mortality. Acad Emerg Med. 2011; 18:13249.
  • 28
    Russ S, Jones I, Aronsky D, Dittus RS, Slovis CM. Placing physician orders at triage: the effect on length of stay. Ann Emerg Med. 2010; 56:2733.
  • 29
    Holroyd BR, Bullard MJ, Latoszek K, et al. Impact of a triage liaison physician on emergency department overcrowding and throughput: a randomized controlled trial. Acad Emerg Med. 2007; 14:7028.
  • 30
    Scheuermeyer F, Christenson J, Innes G, Boychuk B, Yu E, Grafstein E. Safety and efficiency of assessment of patients with potential ischemic chest pain in an emergency department waiting room. Ann Emerg Med. 2010; 56:45562.
  • 31
    Canadian Institute for Health Information. Understanding Emergency Department Wait Times: Who Is Using the Emergency Departments and How Long Are They Waiting? Available at: Accessed Oct 20, 2012.
  • 32
    Han A, Ospina MB, Blitz S, Strome T, Rowe BH. Patients presenting to the emergency department: the use of other health care services and reasons for presentation. CJEM. 2007; 9:42835.
  • 33
    Powell RA, Single HM. Focus groups. Int J Qual Health Care. 1996; 8:499504.
  • 34
    Unger B, Bullard M (eds). Complaint Oriented Triage (COT) 2008. Available at: Accessed Oct 20, 2012.
  • 35
    McCaig LF, Stussman BJ. National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 2003 Emergency Department Summary. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, 2005, p 358.
  • 36
    Shaikh SB, Witting MD, Winters ME, Brodeur MN, Jerrard DA. Support for a waiting room time tracker: a survey of patients waiting in an urban ED. J Emerg Med. 2012 May 21 [Epub ahead of print], DOI:10.1016/j.jemermed.2012.02.053.
  • 37
    Xie B, Youash S. The effects of publishing emergency department wait time on patient utilization patterns in a community with two emergency department sites: a retrospective, quasi-experimental design. Int J Emerg Med. 2011; 14:29.
  • 38
    McLeod B, Zaver F, Avery C, et al. Matching capacity to demand: a regional dashboard reduces ambulance avoidance and improves accessibility of receiving hospitals. Acad Emerg Med. 2010; 17:13839.