• 1
    Salinsky E, Loftis C. Shrinking inpatient psychiatric capacity: cause for celebration or concern? Issue Brief Natl Health Policy Forum. 2007;(823):121.
  • 2
    Hazlett SB, McCarthy ML, Londner MS, Onyike CU. Epidemiology of adult psychiatric visits to US emergency departments. Acad Emerg Med. 2004;11:1935.
  • 3
    Owens PL, Mutter R, Stocks C. Mental Health and Substance Abuse-Related Emergency Department Visits among Adults, 2007. Statistical Brief #92. Available at: Accessed Jan 12, 2013.
  • 4
    American College of Emergency Physicians. ACEP Psychiatric and Substance Abuse Survey 2008. Available at: Accessed Jan 12, 2013.
  • 5
    Slade EP, Dixon LB, Semmel S. Trends in the duration of emergency department visits, 2001-2006. Psychiatr Serv. 2010;61:87884.
  • 6
    Alakeson V, Pande N, Ludwig M. A plan to reduce emergency room ‘boarding’ of psychiatric patients. Health Aff (Millwood). 2010;29:163742.
  • 7
    Chang G, Weiss AP, Orav EJ, et al. Hospital variability in emergency department length of stay for adult patients receiving psychiatric consultation: a prospective study. Ann Emerg Med. 2011;58:12736.
  • 8
    Moskop JC, Sklar DP, Geiderman JM, Schears RM, Bookman KJ. Emergency department crowding, part 1–concept, causes, and moral consequences. Ann Emerg Med. 2009;53:60511.
  • 9
    Howell E, Bessman E, Marshall R, Wright S. Hospitalist bed management effecting throughput from the emergency department to the intensive care unit. J Crit Care. 2010;25:1849.
  • 10
    Defilippis AP, Tellez I, Winawer N, Di Francesco L, Manning KD, Kripalani S. On-site night float by attending physicians: a model to improve resident education and patient care. J Grad Med Educ. 2010;2:5761.
  • 11
    Briones A, Markoff B, Kathuria N, et al. A model of a hospitalist role in the care of admitted patients in the emergency department. J Hosp Med. 2010;5:3604.
  • 12
    Maa J, Carter JT, Gosnell JE, Wachter R, Harris HW. The surgical hospitalist: a new model for emergency surgical care. J Am Coll Surg. 2007;205:70411.
  • 13
    Josephson SA, Engstrom JW, Wachter RM. Neurohospitalists: an emerging model for inpatient neurological care. Ann Neurol. 2008;63:13540.
  • 14
    Likosky D, Shulman S, Restrepo L, Freeman WD. Survey of neurohospitalists: subspecialty definition and practice characteristics. Front Neurol. 2010;1:9.