• 1
    Kost K, Henshaw S. U.S. Teenage Pregnancies, Births, and Abortions, 2008: National Trends by Age, Race, and Ethnicity. Available at: Accessed Jun 3, 2013.
  • 2
    Finer LB, Zolna MR. Unintended pregnancy in the United States: incidence and disparities, 2006. Contraception. 2006;84:47885.
  • 3
    Ventura SJ, Abma JC, Mosher WD, Henshaw SK. Estimated pregnancy rates for the United States, 1990-2005: an update. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2009;58:114.
  • 4
    Ralph LJ, Brindis CD. Access to reproductive healthcare for adolescents: establishing healthy behaviors at a critical juncture in the lifecourse. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2010;22:36974.
  • 5
    Todd CS, Mountvarner G, Lichenstein R. Unintended pregnancy risk in an emergency department population. Contraception. 2005;71:359.
  • 6
    McCaig LF, Nawar EW. National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 2004 emergency department summary. Adv Data. 2006:129.
  • 7
    Causey AL, Seago K, Wahl NG, Voelker CL. Pregnant adolescents in the emergency department: diagnosed and not diagnosed. Am J Emerg Med. 1997;15:1259.
  • 8
    Aruda MM, McCabe M, Litty C, Burke P. Adolescent pregnancy diagnosis and outcomes: a six-year clinical sample. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2008;21:179.
  • 9
    Paranjothy S, Broughton H, Adappa R, Fone D. Teenage pregnancy: who suffers? Arch Dis Child. 2009;94:23945.
  • 10
    Bochicchio GV, Napolitano LM, Haan J, Champion H, Scalea T. Incidental pregnancy in trauma patients. J Am Coll Surg. 2001;192:5669.
  • 11
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. NHAMCS Scope and Sample Design. Available at: Accessed Jun 3, 2013.
  • 12
    Archer KJ, Lemenshow S, Hosmer DW. Goodness-of-fit tests for logistic regression models when data are collected using a complex sampling design. Computational Stat Data Anal. 2007;51:445064.
  • 13
    Korn EL, Graubard BI. Analysis of Health Surveys. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, 1999.
  • 14
    Ziv A, Boulet JR, Slap GB. Emergency department utilization by adolescents in the United States. Pediatrics. 1998;101:98794.
  • 15
    Pomeranz AJ, Matson SC, Nelson DB. Delay in obstetrical care in newly diagnosed teenage pregnancy. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1991;30:6613.
  • 16
    Givens TG, Jackson CL, Kulick RM. Recognition and management of pregnant adolescents in the pediatric emergency department. Pediatr Emerg Care. 1994;10:2535.
  • 17
    Ramoska EA, Sacchetti AD, Nepp M. Reliability of patient history in determining the possibility of pregnancy. Ann Emerg Med. 1989;18:4850.
  • 18
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Youth risk behavior surveillance–United States, 2009. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2010;59:1148.
  • 19
    Ventura SJ, Mathews TJ, Hamilton BE, Sutton PD, Abma JC. Adolescent pregnancy and childbirth–United States, 1991-2008. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2011;60 Suppl:1058.
  • 20
    Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). HCUP-US NEDS Overview. Available at: Accessed Jun 3, 2013.