The Effects of Chronic Cigarette Smoking on Cognitive Recovery During Early Abstinence from Alcohol
Article first published online: 21 FEB 2013
Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research
Volume 37, Issue 7, pages 1220–1227, July 2013
How to Cite
Pennington, D. L., Durazzo, T. C., Schmidt, T. P., Mon, A., Abé, C. and Meyerhoff, D. J. (2013), The Effects of Chronic Cigarette Smoking on Cognitive Recovery During Early Abstinence from Alcohol. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 37: 1220–1227. doi: 10.1111/acer.12089
- Issue published online: 3 JUL 2013
- Article first published online: 21 FEB 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 21 NOV 2012
- Manuscript Received: 3 AUG 2012
- National Institutes of Health. Grant Numbers: AA10788, DA24136
- Alcohol Dependence;
- Cigarette Smoking;
- Former Smoking
Alcohol use disorders are related to neurocognitive abnormalities during early abstinence in those seeking treatment for alcohol dependence (ALC). Considerable evidence indicates that chronic cigarette smoking is associated with multiple neurocognitive deficiencies. However, very little is known about the effects of chronic smoking on neurocognitive recovery during early abstinence from alcohol. We evaluated whether cigarette smoking interferes with cognitive improvement during early abstinence from alcohol, a period thought important for maintaining long-term sobriety.
Neurocognitive functions previously shown to be adversely affected by both alcohol use disorders and chronic cigarette smoking were evaluated. We assessed 35 smoking ALC (sALC) and 34 nonsmoking ALC (nsALC) at approximately 1 and 5 weeks of monitored abstinence.
Although neither group was clinically impaired, both cross-sectional and longitudinal deficiencies were observed in sALC versus nsALC in processing speed, working memory, and auditory-verbal learning and memory. Lifetime alcohol consumption, medical, and psychiatric comorbidities did not predict neurocognitive performance or improvement across assessments. Within sALC, greater drinking and smoking severities were synergistically (more than additively) related to less improvement on visuospatial learning and memory. Former smoking status in the nsALC-mediated group differences in auditory-verbal delayed recall.
Chronic cigarette smoking appears to negatively impact neurocognition during early abstinence from alcohol. Although the cognitive deficiencies observed in this cohort were not in a clinical range of impairment, they should be considered to enhance treatment efficacy. Our findings lend support to integrating smoking cessation as well as the individual assessment of cognition into early ALC treatment. Additionally, there is a need to elucidate the effects of current and former smoking status in future reports of neurocognition.