The biochemical pathways underlying alcohol abuse and dependence are not well understood, although brain cell loss and neurotoxicity have been reported in subjects with alcohol dependence. Monoamine oxidase B (MAO B; an enzyme that catabolizes neurotransmitters such as dopamine) is consistently increased in this psychiatric illness. MAO B has been implicated in the pathogenesis of alcohol dependence and alcohol-induced brain neurotoxicity. Recently, the cell growth inhibitor protein, Kruppel-like factor 11 (KLF11), has been reported to be an MAO transcriptional activator. KLF11 is also known as TIEG2 (transforming growth factor-beta-inducible early gene 2) and mediates apoptotic cell death. This study investigates the protein expression of KLF11 and its relationship with MAO B using human postmortem prefrontal cortex from subjects with alcohol dependence.