Infant Emotional Withdrawal: A Precursor of Affective and Cognitive Disturbance in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
Article first published online: 22 AUG 2013
Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research
Volume 38, Issue 2, pages 479–488, February 2014
How to Cite
Molteno, C. D., Jacobson, J. L., Carter, R. C., Dodge, N. C. and Jacobson, S. W. (2014), Infant Emotional Withdrawal: A Precursor of Affective and Cognitive Disturbance in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 38: 479–488. doi: 10.1111/acer.12240
- Issue published online: 28 JAN 2014
- Article first published online: 22 AUG 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 29 JUN 2013
- Manuscript Received: 4 MAY 2012
- Cape Town longitudinal cohort. Grant Number: NIAAA R01 AA09524
- NIH Office of Research on Minority Health, and the Foundation for Alcohol Related Research, Cape Town, South Africa
- Cape Town longitudinal cohort. Grant Number: U01 AA014790
- NIAAA Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (CIFASD). Grant Numbers: U01 AA014790, U24 AA014815
- Infant Emotional Withdrawal;
- Prenatal Alcohol Exposure;
- Infant Temperament;
- Fetal Alcohol Syndrome;
- Mother–Infant Interaction;
- Iron Deficiency;
- IQ ;
- Draw-A-Person Test
Our aim was to test the hypothesis that emotional withdrawal is an early indicator of affective disorder in infants heavily exposed prenatally to alcohol, which is independent of alcohol-related effects on mother–infant interaction and temperament and discriminated between children later diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial FAS (PFAS) and predicted cognitive and affective outcomes at 5 and 9 years.
The sample consisted of Cape Coloured (mixed ancestry) infants, whose mothers were interviewed during pregnancy regarding their alcohol consumption using a timeline follow-back approach. Infant emotional withdrawal (n = 85) was assessed on the Alarm Distress Baby Scale at 6.5 months. Mother–infant interaction was evaluated from video recordings during free play and infant feeding at 6.5 months (n = 127). Infant temperament was assessed by maternal report on the EAS Temperament Survey at 13 months (n = 119). Sociodemographic and psychological correlates of maternal alcohol use and infant iron deficiency were examined as potential confounders. The children were diagnosed for FAS/PFAS by expert dysmorphologists at 5 years, cognitive and affective function at 5 and 9 years.
Prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with increased infant emotional withdrawal and decreased activity, but unrelated to mother–infant interaction or any other temperament measures. Children later diagnosed with FAS and PFAS at 5 years exhibited more emotional withdrawal and less responsivity and activity as infants. Infant withdrawal, responsivity, quality of interaction, and maternal sensitivity also predicted poorer IQ and affective response at 5 and 9 years. When all 4 infant affective measures were examined simultaneously in a regression analysis, only infant emotional withdrawal persisted as a significant predictor of 9-year IQ.
This study is the first to document a direct effect of fetal alcohol exposure on emotional withdrawal in infancy. These data link prenatal alcohol to a specific aspect of infant affective function not attributable to mother–infant interaction, infant temperament, or other socioemotional aspects of the infant's environment and identify infant emotional withdrawal as an early indicator of affective disturbance, particularly in children later diagnosed with FAS and PFAS.