Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is the cosubstrate used by the enzyme catalase to form Compound I (the catalase-H2O2 system), which is the major pathway for the conversion of ethanol (EtOH) into acetaldehyde in the brain. This centrally formed acetaldehyde has been shown to be involved in some of the psychopharmacological effects induced by EtOH in rodents, including voluntary alcohol intake. It has been observed that different levels of this enzyme in the central nervous system (CNS) result in variations in the amount of EtOH consumed. This has been interpreted to mean that the brain catalase-H2O2 system, by determining EtOH metabolism, mediates alcohol self-administration. To date, however, the role of H2O2 in voluntary EtOH drinking has not been investigated.