The Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (CIFASD; E. Riley, San Diego State University, Principal Investigator) includes 16 different centers where data collection and analysis take place. The data collection sites and associated investigators described in this paper are as follows: San Diego State University (S.N. Mattson), the University of New Mexico and Northern Plains (P.A. May, W.O. Kalberg), University of California, Los Angeles (E.R. Sowell), and Emory University (C.D. Coles and J.A. Kable).
Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder on Adaptive Functioning
Version of Record online: 21 MAR 2014
Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research
Volume 38, Issue 5, pages 1439–1447, May 2014
How to Cite
Ware, A. L., Glass, L., Crocker, N., Deweese, B. N., Coles, C. D., Kable, J. A., May, P. A., Kalberg, W. O., Sowell, E. R., Jones, K. L., Riley, E. P., Mattson, S. N. and the CIFASD (2014), Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder on Adaptive Functioning. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 38: 1439–1447. doi: 10.1111/acer.12376
- Issue online: 22 APR 2014
- Version of Record online: 21 MAR 2014
- Manuscript Accepted: 7 JAN 2014
- Manuscript Received: 6 AUG 2013
- NIAAA. Grant Numbers: U01 AA014834, U24 AA014811, U24 AA014818, U24 AA014815, F31 AA020142, F31 AA022261, T32 AA013525
- Adaptive Behavior;
- Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS);
- Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD);
- Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with adaptive behavior deficits. This study examined the interaction between these 2 factors on parent ratings of adaptive behavior.
As part of a multisite study, primary caregivers of 317 children (8 to 16 years, M = 12.38) completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Second Edition (VABS-II). Four groups of subjects were included: children with prenatal alcohol exposure with ADHD (AE+, n = 82), children with prenatal alcohol exposure without ADHD (AE−, n = 34), children with ADHD (ADHD, n = 71), and control children (CON, n = 130). VABS-II domain scores (Communication, Daily Living Skills, Socialization) were examined using separate 2 (Alcohol Exposure [AE]) × 2 (ADHD diagnosis) between-subjects analyses of covariance.
There were significant main effects of AE (p < 0.001) and ADHD (p < 0.001) on all VABS-II domains; alcohol-exposed children had lower scores than children without prenatal alcohol exposure and children with ADHD had lower scores than those without ADHD. There was a significant AE × ADHD interaction effect for Communication, F(1, 308) = 7.49, p = 0.007, partial η2 = 0.024, but not Daily Living Skills or Socialization domains (ps > 0.27). Follow-up analyses in the Communication domain indicated the effects of ADHD were stronger in comparison subjects (ADHD vs. CON) than exposed subjects (AE+ vs. AE−), and the effects of alcohol exposure were stronger in subjects without ADHD (AE− vs. CON) than in subjects with ADHD (AE+ vs. ADHD).
As found previously, both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD increase adaptive behavior deficits in all domains. However, these 2 factors interact to cause the greatest impairment in children with both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD for communication abilities. These results further demonstrate the deleterious effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and broaden our understanding of how ADHD exacerbates behavioral outcomes in this population.