• 1
    Simon GE, Ludman EJ, Unützer J, Operskalski BH, Bauer MS. Severity of mood symptoms and work productivity in people treated for bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord2008;10:718725.
  • 2
    Rosa AR, Reinares M, Franco C et al.Clinical predictors of functional outcome of bipolar patients in remission. Bipolar Disord2009;11:401409.
  • 3
    Solé B, Bonnin CM, Torrent C et al.Neurocognitive impairment and psychosocial functioning in bipolar II disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand2012;125:309317.
  • 4
    Huxley N, Baldessarini RJ. Disability and its treatment in bipolar disorder patients. Bipolar Disord2007;9:183196.
  • 5
    Bonnín CM, Martínez-Arán A, Torrent C et al.Clinical and neurocognitive predictors of functional outcome in bipolar euthymic patients: a long-term, follow-up study. J Affect Disord2010;121:156160.
  • 6
    Berns S, Uzelac S, Gonzalez C, Jaeger J. Methodological considerations of measuring disability in bipolar disorder: validity of the Multidimensional Scale of Independent Functioning. Bipolar Disord2007;9:310.
  • 7
    Tohen M, Waternaux CM, Tsuang MT. Outcome in Mania. A 4-year prospective follow-up of 75 patients utilizing survival analysis. Arch Gen Psychiatry1990;47:11061111.
  • 8
    Goetz I, Tohen M, Reed C, Lorenzo M, Vieta E. Functional impairment in patients with mania: baseline results of the EMBLEM study. Bipolar Disord2007;9:4552.
  • 9
    MacQueen GM, Young LT, Robb JC, Marriott M, Cooke RG, Joffe RT. Effect of number of episodes on wellbeing and functioning of patients with bipolar disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand2000;101:374381.
  • 10
    Tohen M, Strakowski SM, Zarate CJR et al.The McLean-Harvard first-episode project: 6-month symptomatic and functional outcome in affective and nonaffective psychosis. Biol Psychiatry2000;15:48.
  • 11
    Tohen M, Hennen J, Zarate CM et al.Two-year syndromal and functional recovery in 219 cases of first-episode major affective disorder with psychotic features. Am J Psychiatry2000;157:220228.
  • 12
    Dickerson FB, Boronow JJ, Stallings CR, Origoni AE, Cole S, Yolken RH. Association between cognitive functioning and employment status of persons with bipolar disorder. Psychiatr Serv2004;55:5458.
  • 13
    Gardner HH, Kleinman NL, Brook RA, Rajagopalan K, Brizee TJ, Smeeding JE. The economic impact of bipolar disorder in an employed population from an employer perspective. J Clin Psychiatry2006;67:12091218.
  • 14
    Kupfer DJ, Frank E, Grochocinski VJ, Cluss PA, Houck PR, Stapf DA. Demographic and clinical characteristics of individuals in a bipolar disorder case registry. J Clin Psychiatry2002;63:120125.
  • 15
    Kessler RC, Akiskal HS, Ames M et al.Prevalence and effects of mood disorders on work performance in a nationally representative sample of U.S. workers. Am J Psychiatry2006;163:15611568.
  • 16
    Alonso J, Petukhova M, Vilagut G et al.Days out of role due to common physical and mental conditions: results from the WHO World Mental Health surveys. Mol Psychiatry2011;16:12341246.
  • 17
    Dean BB, Gerner D, Gerner RH. A systematic review evaluating health-related quality of life, work impairment, and healthcare costs and utilization in bipolar disorder. Curr Med Res Opin2004;20:139154.
  • 18
    Judd LL, Schettler PJ, Solomon DA et al.Psychosocial disability and work role function compared across the long-term course of bipolar I, bipolar II and unipolar major depressive disorders. J Affect Disord2008;108:4958.
  • 19
    Reed C, Goetz I, Vieta E, Bassi M, Haro JM. Work impairment in bipolar disorder patients – results from a two-year observational study (EMBLEM). Eur Psychiatry2010;25:338344.
  • 20
    Gutiérrez-Rojas L, Jurado D, Gurpegui M. Factors associated with work, social life and family life disability in bipolar disorder patients. Psychiatry Res2011;186:254260.
  • 21
    Montoya A, Tohen M, Vieta E et al.Functioning and symptomatic outcomes in patients with bipolar I disorder in syndromal remission: a 1-year, prospective, observational cohort study. J Affect Disord2010;127:5057.
  • 22
    Waghorn G, Chant D, Jaeger J. Employment functioning and disability among community residents with bipolar affective disorder: results from an Australian community survey. Bipolar Disord2007;9:166182.
  • 23
    Mur M, Portella MJ, Martinez-Aran A, Pifarre J, Vieta E. Influence of clinical and neuropsychological variables on the psychosocial and occupational outcome of remitted bipolar patients. Psychopathology2009;42:148156.
  • 24
    Dickerson F, Origoni A, Stallings C, Khushalani S, Dickinson D, Medoff D. Occupational status and social adjustment six months after hospitalization early in the course of bipolar disorder: a prospective study. Bipolar Disord2010;12:1020.
  • 25
    Martinez-Aran A, Vieta E, Torrent C et al.Functional outcome in bipolar disorder: the role of clinical and cognitive factors. Bipolar Disord2007;9:103113.
  • 26
    Ruggero CJ, Chelminski I, Young D, Zimmerman M. Psychosocial impairment associated with bipolar II disorder. J Affect Disord2007;104:5360.
  • 27
    Gilbert AM, Olino TM, Houck P, Fagiolini A, Kupfer DJ, Frank E. Self-reported cognitive problems predict employment trajectory in patients with bipolar I disorder. J Affect Disord2010;124:324328.
  • 28
    Medard E, Dubertret C, Peretti CS, Ades J, D’escatha A. Descriptive study of the occupational outcome of bipolar patients. J Occup Rehabil2010;20:293298.
  • 29
    Fagiolini A, Kupfer DJ, Masalehdan A, Scott JA, Houck PR, Frank E. Functional impairment in the remission phase of bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord2005;7:281285.
  • 30
    Elinson L, Houck P, Pincus HA. Working, receiving disability benefits, and access to mental health care in individuals with bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord2007;9:158165.
  • 31
    Perlis RH, Ostacher MJ, Patel JK et al.Predictors of recurrence in bipolar disorder: primary outcomes from the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD). Am J Psychiatry2006;163:217224.
  • 32
    De Dios C, González-Pinto A, Montes JM et al.Predictors of recurrence in bipolar disorders in Spain (PREBIS study data). J Affect Disord2012, May 17 [Epub ahead print].
  • 33
    Spearing MK, Post RM, Leverich GS, Brandt D, Nolen W. Modification of the Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) Scale for use in bipolar illness (BP): the CGI-BP. Psychiatry Res1997;73:159171.
  • 34
    Lobo A, Chamorro L, Luque A, Dal-Ré R, Badia X, Baró E. Validation of the Spanish versions of the Montgomery–Asberg depression and Hamilton anxiety rating scales. Med Clin (Barc)2002;118:493499.
  • 35
    Colom F, Vieta E, Martínez-Arán A et al.Spanish version of a scale for the assessment of mania: validity and reliability of the Young Mania Rating Scale. Med Clin (Barc)2002;119:366371.
  • 36
    Paz García-Portilla M, Sáiz PA, Díaz-Mesa EM et al.Rendimiento psicométrico del Cuestionario Oviedo de Sueño en pacientes con trastorno mental grave. Revista de Psiquiatría y Salud Mental2009;2:169177.
  • 37
    Rosa AR, Sánchez-Moreno J, Martínez-Aran A et al.Validity and reliability of the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST) in bipolar disorder. Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health2007;3:5.
  • 38
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual for mental disorders, 4th edn. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing Inc, 2000.
  • 39
    Rosenheck R, Leslie D, Keefe R et al.Barriers to employment for people with schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry2006;163:411417.
  • 40
    Zimmerman M, Galione JN, Chelminski I, Young D, Dalrymple K, Ruggero CJ. Sustained unemployment in psychiatric outpatients with bipolar disorder: frequency and association with demographic variables and comorbid disorders. Bipolar Disord2010;12:720726.
  • 41
    Brieger P, Ehrt U, Marneros A. Frequency of comorbid personality disorders in bipolar and unipolar affective disorders. Compr Psychiatry2003;44:2834.
  • 42
    Colom F, Vieta E, Martínez-Arán A, Reinares M, Benabarre A, Gastó C. Clinical factors associated with treatment noncompliance in euthymic bipolar patients. J Clin Psychiatry2000;61:549555.
  • 43
    Post RM. Kindling and sensitization as models for affective episode recurrence, cyclicity, and tolerance phenomena. Neurosci Biobehav Rev2007;31:858873.
  • 44
    Colom F, Vieta E, Daban C, Pacchiarotti I, Sánchez-Moreno J. Clinical and therapeutic implications of predominant polarity in bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord2006;93:1317.
  • 45
    Altshuler LL, Post RM, Black DO et al.Subsyndromal depressive symptoms are associated with functional impairment in patients with bipolar disorder: results of a large, multisite study. J Clin Psychiatry2006;67:15511560.
  • 46
    Gutiérrez-Rojas L, Gurpegui M, Ayuso-Mateos JL, Gutiérrez-Ariza JA, Ruiz-Veguilla M, Jurado D. Quality of life in bipolar disorder patients: a comparison with a general population sample. Bipolar Disord2008;10:625634.
  • 47
    Ten Have M, Vollebergh W, Bijl R, Nolen WA. Bipolar disorder in the general population in The Netherlands (prevalence, consequences and care utilisation): results from The Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS). J Affect Disord2002;68:203213.
  • 48
    Cohen AN, Hammen C, Henry RM, Daley SE. Effects of stress and social support on recurrence in bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord2004;82:143147.
  • 49
    Depp CA, Davis CE, Mittal D, Patterson TL, Jeste DV. Health-related quality of life and functioning of middle-aged and elderly adults with bipolar disorder. J Clin Psychiatry2006;67:215221.
  • 50
    Depp CA, Moore DJ, Sitzer D et al.Neurocognitive impairment in middle-aged and older adults with bipolar disorder: comparison to schizophrenia and normal comparison subjects. J Affect Disord2007;101:201209.
  • 51
    Gildengers AG, Whyte EM, Drayer RA et al.Medical burden in late-life bipolar and major depressive disorders. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry2008;16:194200.
  • 52
    Tohen M, Zarate CA Jr, Hennen J et al.The McLean-Harvard First-Episode Mania Study: prediction of recovery and first recurrence. Am J Psychiatry2003;160:20992107.
  • 53
    Franchini L, Zanardi R, Smeraldi E, Gasperini M. Early onset of lithium prophylaxis as a predictor of good long-term outcome. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci1999;249:227230.
  • 54
    Swann AC, Bowden CL, Calabrese JR, Dilsaver SC, Morris DD. Differential effect of number of previous episodes of affective disorder on response to lithium or divalproex in acute mania. Am J Psychiatry1999;156:12641266.
  • 55
    Scott J, Paykel E, Morriss R et al.Cognitive-behavioural therapy for severe and recurrent bipolar disorders: randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry2006;188:313320.
  • 56
    Berk M, Conus P, Lucas N et al.Setting the stage: from prodrome to treatment resistance in bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord2007;9:671678.
  • 57
    Rosa AR, González-Ortega I, González-Pinto A et al.One-year psychosocial functioning in patients in the early vs. late stage of bipolar disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand2012;125:335341.
  • 58
    Sanchez-Moreno J, Martinez-Aran A, Tabarés-Seisdedos R, Torrent C, Vieta E, Ayuso-Mateos JL. Functioning and disability in bipolar disorder: an extensive review. Psychother Psychosom2009;78:285297.