• 1
    Kessler RC, Mclaughlin KA, Green JG et al. Childhood adversities and adult psychopathology in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Br J Psychiatry 2010;197:378385.
  • 2
    Sapienza JK, Masten AS. Understanding and promoting resilience in children and youth. Curr Opin Psychiatry 2011;24:267273.
  • 3
    Lutha SS, Cicchetti D. The construct of resilience: implications for interventions and social policies. Dev Psychopathol 2000;12:857885.
  • 4
    Castleden M, McKee M, Murray V, Leonardi G. Resilience thinking in health protection. J Public Health (Oxf) 2011;33:369377.
  • 5
    Zautra AJ, Hall JS, Murray KE. Resilience: a new definition of health for people and communities. New York: The Guilford Press, 2010.
  • 6
    Davydov DM, Stewart R, Ritchie K, Chaudieu I. lience and mental health. Clin Psychol Rev 2010;30:479495.
  • 7
    Moffitt TE, Caspi A, Rutter M. Strategy for investigating interactions between measured genes and measured environments. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005;62:473481.
  • 8
    Feder A, Nestler EJ, Charney DS. Psychobiology and molecular genetics of resilience. Nat Rev Neurosci 2009;10:446457.
  • 9
    McEwen BS, Gianaros PJ. Stress- and allostasis-induced brain plasticity. Annu Rev Med 2011;62:431445.
  • 10
    Fu M, Zuo Y. Experience-dependent structural plasticity in the cortex. Trends Neurosci 2011;34:177187.
  • 11
    Leyton M. Conditioned and sensitized responses to stimulant drugs in humans. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2007;31:16011613.
  • 12
    Gerbault P, Liebert A, Itan Y et al. Evolution of lactase persistence: an example of human niche construction. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2011;366:863877.
  • 13
    Feinberg AP. Phenotypic plasticity and the epigenetics of human disease. Nature 2007;447:433440.
  • 14
    Hsieh J, Eisch AJ. Epigenetics, hippocampal neurogenesis, and neuropsychiatric disorders: unraveling the genome to understand the mind. Neurobiol Dis 2010;39:7384.
  • 15
    Graff J, Kim D, Dobbin MM, Tsai LH. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression in physiological and pathological brain processes. Physiol Rev 2011;91:603649.
  • 16
    Levenson JM, Sweatt JD. Epigenetic mechanisms: a common theme in vertebrate and invertebrate memory formation. Cell Mol Life Sci 2006;63:10091016.
  • 17
    Feng J, Zhou Y, Campbell SL et al. Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a maintain DNA methylation and regulate synaptic function in adult forebrain neurons. Nat Neurosci 2010;13:423430.
  • 18
    Chouliaras L, Rutten BP, Kenis G et al. Epigenetic regulation in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. Prog Neurobiol 2010;90:498510.
  • 19
    Liu L, Van Groen T, Kadish I, Tollefsbol TO. DNA methylation impacts on learning and memory in aging. Neurobiol Aging 2009;30:549560.
  • 20
    Rutten BP, Mill J. Epigenetic mediation of environmental influences in major psychotic disorders. Schizophr Bull 2009;35:10451056.
  • 21
    Meaney MJ, Szyf M. Environmental programming of stress responses through DNA methylation: life at the interface between a dynamic environment and a fixed genome. Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2005;7:103123.
  • 22
    Liu D, Diorio J, Tannenbaum B et al. Maternal care, hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses to stress. Science 1997;277:16591662.
  • 23
    Weaver IC, Cervoni N, Champagne FA et al. Epigenetic programming by maternal behavior. Nat Neurosci 2004;7:847854.
  • 24
    Branchi I, Francia N, Alleva E. Epigenetic control of neurobehavioural plasticity: the role of neurotrophins. Behav Pharmacol 2004;15:353362.
  • 25
    Weinberg J, Smotherman WP, Levine S. Early handling effects on neophobia and conditioned taste aversion. Physiol Behav 1978;20:589596.
  • 26
    Cirulli F, Berry A, Alleva E. Early disruption of the mother-infant relationship: effects on brain plasticity and implications for psychopathology. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2003;27:7382.
  • 27
    Cirulli F, Micera A, Alleva E, Aloe L. Early maternal separation increases NGF expression in the developing rat hippocampus. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1998;59:853858.
  • 28
    Suomi SJ. Risk, resilience, and gene-environment interplay in primates. J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2011;20:289297.
  • 29
    Barr CS, Newman TK, Shannon C et al. Rearing condition and rh5-HTTLPR interact to influence limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to stress in infant macaques. Biol Psychiatry 2004;55:733738.
  • 30
    Golden SA, Covington HE, III, BERTON O, RUSSO SJ. A standardized protocol for repeated social defeat stress in mice. Nat Protoc 2011;6:11831191.
  • 31
    Krishnan V, Han MH, Graham DL et al. Molecular adaptations underlying susceptibility and resistance to social defeat in brain reward regions. Cell 2007;131:391404.
  • 32
    Lutter M, Krishnan V, Russo SJ, Jung S, McClung CA, Nestler EJ. Orexin signaling mediates the antidepressant-like effect of calorie restriction. J Neurosci 2008;28:30713075.
  • 33
    Bonci A, Borgland S. Role of orexin/hypocretin and CRF in the formation of drug-dependent synaptic plasticity in the mesolimbic system. Neuropharmacology 2009;56(Suppl 1):107111.
  • 34
    Hyman SE. How mice cope with stressful social situations. Cell 2007;131:232234.
  • 35
    Berton O, McClung CA, Dileone RJ et al. Essential role of BDNF in the mesolimbic dopamine pathway in social defeat stress. Science 2006;311:864868.
  • 36
    Collins A, Hill LE, Chandramohan Y, Whitcomb D, Droste SK, Reul JM. Exercise improves cognitive responses to psychological stress through enhancement of epigenetic mechanisms and gene expression in the dentate gyrus. PLoS ONE 2009;4:e4330.
  • 37
    Van Praag H. Exercise and the brain: something to chew on. Trends Neurosci 2009;32:283290.
  • 38
    Stranahan AM, Lee K, Mattson MP. Central mechanisms of HPA axis regulation by voluntary exercise. NeuroMol Med 2008;10:118127.
  • 39
    Berchtold NC, Chinn G, Chou M, Kesslak JP, Cotman CW. Exercise primes a molecular memory for brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein induction in the rat hippocampus. Neuroscience 2005;133:853861.
  • 40
    Russo-Neustadt A, Ha T, Ramirez R, Kesslak JP. Physical activity-antidepressant treatment combination: impact on brain-derived neurotrophic factor and behavior in an animal model. Behav Brain Res 2001;120:8795.
  • 41
    Cirulli F, Berry A, Bonsignore LT et al. Early life influences on emotional reactivity: evidence that social enrichment has greater effects than handling on anxiety-like behaviors, neuroendocrine responses to stress and central BDNF levels. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2010;34:808820.
  • 42
    Schloesser RJ, Lehmann M, Martinowich K, Manji HK, Herkenham M. Environmental enrichment requires adult neurogenesis to facilitate the recovery from psychosocial stress. Mol Psychiatry 2010;15:11521163.
  • 43
    Colman RJ, Anderson RM, Johnson SC et al. Caloric restriction delays disease onset and mortality in rhesus monkeys. Science 2009;325:201204.
  • 44
    Chouliaras L, Van Den Hove DL, Kenis G et al. Prevention of age-related changes in hippocampal levels of 5-methylcytidine by caloric restriction. Neurobiol Aging 2011;33:16721681.
  • 45
    Chouliaras L, Van Den Hove DL, Kenis G et al. Age-related increase in levels of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in mouse hippocampus is prevented by caloric restriction. Curr Alzheimer Res 2012;9:536544.
  • 46
    Chouliaras L, Van Den Hove DL, Kenis G et al. Caloric restriction attenuates age-related changes of DNA methyltransferase 3a in mouse hippocampus. Brain Behav Immun 2011;25:616623.
  • 47
    Rutten BP, Brasnjevic I, Steinbusch HW, Schmitz C. Caloric restriction and aging but not overexpression of SOD1 affect hippocampal volumes in mice. Mech Ageing Dev 2010;131:574579.
  • 48
    Del Arco A, Segovia G, De Blas M et al. Prefrontal cortex, caloric restriction and stress during aging: studies on dopamine and acetylcholine release, BDNF and working memory. Behav Brain Res 2011;216:136145.
  • 49
    Svanberg POG. Attachment, resilience and prevention. J Ment Health 1998;7:543578.
  • 50
    Atwool N. Attachment and resilience: implications for children in care. Child Care in Practice 2006;12:315330.
  • 51
    Bee HL, Boyd D. The developing child. 10th ed. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 2004.
  • 52
    Dent RJ, Cameron RJS. Developing resilience in children who are in public care: the educational psychology perspective. Educ Psychol Pract 2003;19:319.
  • 53
    Swanson J, Valiente C, Lemery-Chalfant K, O'BRIEN TC. Predicting early adolescents' academic achievement, social competence, and physical health from parenting, ego resilinece, and engagement coping. J Early Adolesc 2011;31:548576.
  • 54
    Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ, Van Ijzendoorn MH, Bokhorst CL, Schuengel C. The importance of shared environment in infant-father attachment: a behavioral genetic study of the attachment Q-Sort. J Fam Psychol 2004;18:545549.
  • 55
    Bokhorst CL, Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ, Fearon RMP, Van Ijzendoorn MH, Fonagy P, Schuengel C. The importance of shared environment in mother-infant attachment security: a behavioral genetic study. Child Dev 2003;74:17691782.
  • 56
    Fearon RMP, Van Ijzendoorn MH, Fonagy P, Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ, Schuengel C, Bokhorst CL. In search of shared and nonshared environmental factors in security of attachment: a behavior genetic study of the association between sensitivity and attachment security. Dev Psychol 2006;42:10261040.
  • 57
    Jaffee SR. Sensitive, stimulating caregiving predicts cognitive and behavioral resilience in neurodevelopmentally at-risk infants. Dev Psychopathol 2007;19:631347.
  • 58
    Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ, Van Ijzendoorn MH, Juffer F. Less is more: meta-analyses of sensitivity and attachment interventions in early childhood. Psychol Bull 2003;129:195215.
  • 59
    Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ, Van Ijzendoorn MH, Juffer F. Disorganized infant attachment and preventive interventions: a review and meta-analysis. Inf Mental Hlth J 2005;26:191216.
  • 60
    Siegel D. Toward an interpersonal neurobiology of the developling mind: attachment relationships, “mindsight”, and neural integration. Inf Mental Hlth J 2001;22:6794.
  • 61
    Young KA, Liu Y, Wang Z. The neurobiology of social attachment: a comparative approach to behavioral, neuroanatomical, and neurochemical studies. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2008;148:401410.
  • 62
    Tops M, Van Peer J, Korf J, Wijers AA, Tucker DM. Anxiety, cortisol, and attachment predict plasma oxytocin. Psychophysiology 2007;44:444449.
  • 63
    Fearon RMP, Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ, Van Ijzendoorn MH, Lapsey AM, Roisman GI. The significance of insecure attachment and disorganization in the development of children's externalizing behavior: a meta-analytic study. Child Dev 2010;81:435456.
  • 64
    Jaffee SR, Caspi A, Moffitt TE, Polo-Tomas M, Taylor A. Individual, family, and neighborhood factors distinguish resilient from non-resilient maltreated children: a cumulative stressors model. Child Abuse Negl 2007;31:231253.
  • 65
    Van Der Linden J, Drukker M, Gunther N, Feron F, Van Os J. Children's mental health service use, neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation, and social capital. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2003;38:507514.
  • 66
    Seligman MEP, Steen TA, Peterson C. Positive psychology progress: empirical validation of interventions. Am Psychol 2005;60:410421.
  • 67
    Zautra AJ, Johnson LM, Davis MC. Positive affect as a source of resilience for women in chronic pain. J Consult Clin Psychol 2005;73:212220.
  • 68
    Ong AD, Zautra AJ, Reid MC. Psychological resilience predicts decreases in pain catastrophizing through positive emotions. Psychol Aging 2010;25:516523.
  • 69
    Ong AD, Mroczek DK, Riffin C. The health significance of positive emotions in adulthood and later life. Soc Personal Psychol Compass 2011;5:538551.
  • 70
    Geschwind N, Nicolson NA, Peeters F, Van Os J, Barge-Schaapveld D, Wichers MC. Early improvement in positive rather than negative emotion predicts remission from depression after pharmacotherapy. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2010;21:241247.
  • 71
    Fredrickson BL, Mancuso RA, Branigan C, Tugade MM. The undoing effect of positive emotions. Motiv Emot 2000;24:237258.
  • 72
    Wichers MC, Myin-Germeys I, Jacobs N et al. Evidence that moment-to-moment variation in positive emotions buffer genetic risk for depression: a momentary assessment twin study. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2007;115:451457.
  • 73
    Wichers MC, Kenis G, Jacobs N et al. The psychology of psychiatric genetics: evidence that positive emotions in females moderate genetic sensitivity to social stress associated with the BDNF Val (66) Met polymorphism. J Abnorm Psychol 2008;117:699704.
  • 74
    Boardman JD, Blalock CL, Button TMM. Sex differences in the heritability of resilience. Twin Res Hum Genet 2008;11:1227.
  • 75
    Carstensen LL, Pasupathi M, Mayr U, Nesselroade JR. Emotional experience in everyday life across the adult life span. J Pers Soc Psychol 2000;79:644655.
  • 76
    Charles ST, Reynolds CA, Gatz M. Age-related differences and change in positive and negative affect over 23 years. J Pers Soc Psychol 2001;80:136151.
  • 77
    Diamond LM, Aspinwall LG. Emotion regulation across the life span: an integrative perspective emphasizing self-regulation, positive affect, and dyadic processes. Motiv Emot 2003;27:125156.
  • 78
    Hankin BL, Nederhof E, Oppenheimer CW et al. Differential susceptibility in youth: evidence that 5-HTTLPR x positive parenting is associated with positive affect/'for better and worse/'. Transl Psychiatry 2011;1:e44.
  • 79
    Geschwind N, Peeters F, Jacobs N et al. Meeting risk with resilience: high daily life reward experience preserves mental health. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2010;122:129138.
  • 80
    Wichers MC, Peeters F, Geschwind N et al. Unveiling patterns of affective responses in daily life may improve outcome prediction in depression: a momentary assessment study. J Affect Disord 2010;124:191195.
  • 81
    Schultz W. Behavioral theories and the neurophysiology of reward. Annu Rev Psychol 2006;57:87115.
  • 82
    Geschwind N, Nicolson NA, Peeters F, Van Os J, Barge-Schaapveld D, Wichers M. Early improvement in positive rather than negative emotion predicts remission from depression after pharmacotherapy. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2011;21:241247.
  • 83
    Nestler EJ, Carlezon WAJ. The mesolimbic dopamine reward circuit in depression. Biol Psychiatry 2006;59:11511159.
  • 84
    Wise RA. Drug-activation of brain reward pathways. Drug Alcohol Depend 1998;51:1322.
  • 85
    Galvan A, Hare TA, Davidson M, spicer J, Glover G, Casey BJ. The role of ventral frontostriatal circuitry in reward-based learning in humans. J Neurosci 2005;25:86508656.
  • 86
    Kringelbach ML. The human orbitofrontal cortex: linking reward to hedonic experience. Nat Rev Neurosci 2005;6:691702.
  • 87
    Bilder RM, Volavka J, Lachman HM, Grace AA. The catechol-O-methyltransferase polymorphism: relations to the tonic-phasic dopamine hypothesis and neuropsychiatric phenotypes. Neuropsychopharmacology 2004;29:19431961.
  • 88
    Craddock N, Owen MJ, O'DONOVAN MC. The catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) gene as a candidate for psychiatric phenotypes: evidence and lessons. Mol Psychiatry 2006;11:446458.
  • 89
    Egan M, Goldman D, Weinberger D. The human genome. Am J Psychiatry 2002;159:12.
  • 90
    Wichers MC, Aguilera M, Kenis G et al. The catechol-O-methyl transferase Val (158) Met polymorphism and experience of reward in the flow of daily life. Neuropsychopharmacology 2008;33:30303036.
  • 91
    Sin NL, Lyubomirsky S. Enhancing well-being and alleviating depressive symptoms with positive psychology interventions: a practice-friendly meta-analysis. J Clin Psychol 2009;65:467487.
  • 92
    Wichers M, Lothmann C, Simons CJ, Nicolson NA, Peeters F. The dynamic interplay between negative and positive emotions in daily life predicts response to treatment in depression: a momentary assessment study. Br J Clin Psychol 2012;51:206222.
  • 93
    Wichers M, Peeters F, Rutten BP et al. A time-lagged momentary assessment study on daily life physical activity and affect. Health Psychol 2012;31:135144.
  • 94
    Easterlin B, Cardena E. Cognitive and emotional differences between short and long term Vipassana meditators. Imagin Cogn Pers 1998;18:6981.
  • 95
    Brown KW, Ryan RM. The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. J Pers Soc Psychol 2003;84:822848.
  • 96
    Fredrickson BL, Cohn MA, Coffey KA, Pek J, Finkel SM. Open hearts build lives: positive emotions, induced through loving-kindness meditation, build consequential personal resources. J Pers Soc Psychol 2008;95:10451062.
  • 97
    Geschwind N, Peeters F, Drukker M, Van Os J, Wichers M. Mindfulness training increases momentary positive emotions and reward experience in adults vulnerable to depression: a randomized controlled trial. J Consult Clin Psychol 2011;79:618628.
  • 98
    Kabat-Zinn J. Full catastrophe living: the program of the Stress Reduction Clinic at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center. New York: Dell Publishing, 1990.
  • 99
    Beck AT, Rush AJ, Shaw BF, Emergy G. Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford Press, 1979.
  • 100
    Teasdale JD, Segal ZV, Williams JMG. How does cognitive therapy prevent depressive relapse and why should attentional control (mindfulness) training help. Behav Res Ther 1995;33:2539.
  • 101
    Davidson RJ, Kabat-Zinn J, Schumacher J et al. Alterations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation. Psychosom Med 2003;65:564570.
  • 102
    Lutz A, Brefczynski-Lewis J, Johnstone T, Davidson RJ. Regulation of the neural circuitry of emotion by compassion meditation: effects of meditative expertise. PLoS ONE 2008;3:e1897.
  • 103
    Lazar SW, Kerr CE, Wasserman RH et al. Meditation experience is associated with increased cortical thickness. Neuroreport 2005;16:18931897.
  • 104
    Vestergaard-Poulsen P, Van Beek M, Skewes J et al. Long-term meditation is associated with increased gray matter density in the brain stem. NeuroReport 2009;20:1704.
  • 105
    Hölzel BK, Carmody J, Vangel M et al. Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density. Psychiatry Res 2011;191:3643.
  • 106
    Spoont MR, Hodges J, Murdoch M, Nugent S. Race and ethnicity as factors in mental health service use among veterans with PTSD. J Trauma Stress 2009;22:648653.
  • 107
    Frankl V. Man's search for Meaning. New York: Pocket Books, 1959.
  • 108
    Jackson H, McGorry P, Henry L et al. Cognitively oriented psychotherapy for early psychosis (COPE): a 1-year follow-up. Br J Clin Psychol 2001;40:5770.
  • 109
    Orbach I, Mikulincer M, Gilboa-Schechtman E, Sirota P. Mental pain and its relationship to suicidality and life meaning. Suicide Life Threat Behav 2003;33:231241.
  • 110
    Yanez B, Edmondson D, Stanton AL et al. Facets of spirituality as predictors of adjustment to cancer: relative contributions of having faith and finding meaning. J Consult Clin Psychol 2009;77:730741.
  • 111
    Lyon DE, Younger JB. Purpose in life and depressive symptoms in persons living with HIV disease. J Nurs Scholarsh 2001;33:129133.
  • 112
    Koenig HG. Research on religion, spirituality, and mental health: a review. Can J Psychiatry 2009;54:283291.
  • 113
    Koenig LB, Vaillant GE. A prospective study of church attendance and health over the lifespan. Health Psychol 2009;28:117124.
  • 114
    Kasen S, Wickramaratne P, Gameroff MJ, Weissman MM. Religiosity and resilience in persons at high risk for major depression. Psychol Med 2011;17:111.
  • 115
    Hodges PJ. The essence of life purpose. Crit Care Nurs Q 2009;32:163170.
  • 116
    French S, Stephen J. Religiosity and its association with happiness, purpose in life, and selfactualisation. Ment Health Relig Cult 1999;2:117120.
  • 117
    Schaefer FC, Blazer DG, Koenig HG. Religious and spiritual factors and the consequences of trauma: a review and model of the interrelationship. Int J Psychiatry Med 2008;38:507524.
  • 118
    Beauregard M, Paquette V. Neural correlates of a mystical experience in Carmelite nuns. Neurosci Lett 2006;405:186190.
  • 119
    Schjødt U, Stødkilde-Jørgensen H, Geertz AW, Roepstorff A. Rewarding prayers. Neurosci Lett 2008;443:165168.
  • 120
    Garland EL, Fredrickson BL. Mindfulness broadens awareness and builds meaning at the attention-emotion interface. In: Kashdan TB, Ciarrochi J, eds. Cultivating well-being: treatment innovations in positive psychology, acceptance and commitment therapy, and beyond. New Harbinger Publications, Inc.: Oakland, CA, in press.
  • 121
    Helgeson VS, Lopez L. Social support and growth following adversity. In: Reich JW, Zautra AJ, Hall JS, eds. Handbook of adult resilience. New York: The Guilford Press, 2010.
  • 122
    Hall JS, Zautra AJ. Indicators of community resilience: what are they, why bother? In: Reich JW, Zautra AJ, Hall JS, eds. Handbook of adult resilience. New York: The Guildford Press, 2010.
  • 123
    Post RM. Transduction of psychosocial stress into the neurobiology of recurrent affective disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1992;149:9991010.
  • 124
    Wichers M, Schrijvers D, Geschwind N et al. Mechanisms of gene-environment interactions in depression: evidence that genes potentiate multiple sources of adversity. Psychol Med 2009;39:10771086.
  • 125
    Murgatroyd C, Patchev AV, Wu Y et al. Dynamic DNA methylation programs persistent adverse effects of early-life stress. Nat Neurosci 2009;12:15591566.
  • 126
    McGowan PO, Sasaki A, D'ALESSIO AC et al. Epigenetic regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor in human brain associates with childhood abuse. Nat Neurosci 2009;12:342348.
  • 127
    Fredrickson BL, Levenson RW. Positive emotions speed recovery from the cardiovascular sequelae of negative emotions. Cogn Emot 1998;12:191220.
  • 128
    Wichers MC, Barge-Schaapveld DQ, Nicolson NA et al. Reduced stress-sensitivity or increased reward experience: the psychological mechanism of response to antidepressant medication. Neuropsychopharmacology 2009;34:923931.
  • 129
    Pruessner JC, Champagne F, Meaney MJ, Dagher A. Dopamine release in response to a psychological stress in humans and its relationship to early life maternal care: a positron emission tomography study using [11C] raclopride. J Neurosci 2004;24:28252831.
  • 130
    Boulle F, Van Den Hove DL, Jakob SB et al. Epigenetic regulation of the BDNF gene: implications for psychiatric disorders. Mol Psychiatry 2011;17:584596.
  • 131
    Canli T, Lesch KP. Long story short: the serotonin transporter in emotion regulation and social cognition. Nat Neurosci 2007;10:11031109.
  • 132
    Lesch KP. When the serotonin transporter gene meets adversity: the contribution of animal models to understanding epigenetic mechanisms in affective disorders and resilience. Curr Top Behav Neurosci 2011;7:251280.
  • 133
    Kinnally EL, Capitanio JP, Leibel R et al. Epigenetic regulation of serotonin transporter expression and behavior in infant rhesus macaques. Genes Brain Behav 2010;9:575582.
  • 134
    Koenen KC, Uddin M, Chang SC et al. SLC6A4 methylation modifies the effect of the number of traumatic events on risk for posttraumatic stress disorder. Depress Anxiety 2011;28:639647.
  • 135
    Heim C, Newport DJ, Mletzko T, Miller AH, Nemeroff CB. The link between childhood trauma and depression: insights from HPA axis studies in humans. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2008;33:693710.
  • 136
    Collip D, Myin-Germeys I, Van Os J. Does the concept of “sensitization” provide a plausible mechanism for the putative link between the environment and schizophrenia? Schizophr Bull 2008;34:220225.
  • 137
    McClung CA, Nestler EJ. Neuroplasticity mediated by altered gene expression. Neuropsychopharmacology 2008;33:317.
  • 138
    Myin-Germeys I, Oorschot M, Collip D, Lataster J, Delespaul P, Van Os J. Experience sampling research in psychopathology: opening the black box of daily life. Psychol Med 2009;39:15331547.
  • 139
    Krishnan V, Berton O, Nestler E. The use of animal models in psychiatric research and treatment. Am J Psychiatry 2008;165:1109.
  • 140
    Slagter HA, Davidson RJ, Lutz A. Mental training as a tool in the neuroscientific study of brain and cognitive plasticity. Front Hum Neurosci 2011;5:17.