Discontinuation of clozapine: a 15-year naturalistic retrospective study of 320 patients
Article first published online: 2 DEC 2013
Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Volume 130, Issue 1, pages 30–39, July 2014
How to Cite
Discontinuation of clozapine: A 15-year naturalistic retrospective study of 320 patients., , , , .
- Issue published online: 10 JUN 2014
- Article first published online: 2 DEC 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 8 NOV 2013
- Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Research Service
- NIH. Grant Number: T32 GM007250
- clinical aspects;
Clozapine is underutilized in the management of treatment-resistant schizophrenia. To understand contributing factors, we analyzed the frequency and causes of clozapine discontinuations that occurred over a 15-year period in a clinical setting.
Data were extracted from computerized records and from mandatory termination reports for discontinuation events 1993–2007. The reasons for termination were analyzed.
Over half of the patients (n = 183/320; 57%) had at least one discontinuation (median time 609 days). The two most common causes for discontinuation were non-adherence (35%) and side-effects (28%). Hematological side-effects accounted for 45% of all side-effect associated discontinuations; most such patients remained eligible for clozapine treatment, and a significant fraction remained on clozapine after rechallenge. Central nervous system side-effects accounted for 35% of side-effect induced discontinuations. General factors significantly associated with discontinuation were African American race, older age at initiation of clozapine and less improvement in psychiatric symptoms.
In addition to anticipating and addressing causes of non-adherence, psychiatrists should consider clozapine rechallenge in eligible patients and implement measures to mitigate clozapine-associated sedation, seizures, and other side-effects. Future studies should particularly address why African American and older patients may be more likely to discontinue clozapine.