Figure S1. Functional dissimilarity measured as the overlap of species within functional space. Species are plotted within four-dimensional functional trait space. (a) Axes 1 and 2: primary and twice-logged forest (light grey), once-logged forest (mid-grey) and oil palm (dark grey), and (b) Axes 3 and 4: primary, once-logged and twice-logged forest (light grey); oil palm (dark grey).

Figure S2. The mean standardized effect size (SES) of functional diversity metrics: (a) functional richness; (b) functional evenness; (c) functional divergence; (d) functional specialization in each habitat. SES = [(Observed − mean Expected)/sd Expected]. Expected functional metrics are calculated from 1000 randomizations of the regional pool of species in which species frequency occurrence and species richness are maintained. SES > zero indicates greater functional diversity than the regional species pool.

Table S1. Broad trait categories. Scale indicates the type of trait, functional trait shows how the trait is measured and functional importance suggests the impacts of the trait for ecosystem functioning.

Table S2. Abundance of species in each habitat, abbreviations: primary forest (P), once-logged forest (1L), twice-logged forest (2L) and oil palm plantation (OP), the functional traits used: the abundance of species visiting dung, carrion, fruit and fungi bait types, the average body size (measured to the nearest mm), the guild and the diel activity of species.

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