Both authors contributed equally to this study.
A green strategy for shark attack mitigation off Recife, Brazil
Article first published online: 28 NOV 2013
© 2013 The Zoological Society of London
Volume 17, Issue 4, pages 287–296, August 2014
How to Cite
Hazin, F. H. V. and Afonso, A. S. (2014), A green strategy for shark attack mitigation off Recife, Brazil. Animal Conservation, 17: 287–296. doi: 10.1111/acv.12096
Editor: Trevor Branch
Associate Editor: Olaf Jensen
- Issue published online: 30 JUL 2014
- Article first published online: 28 NOV 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 22 OCT 2013
- Manuscript Received: 19 JUN 2013
- State Government of Pernambuco
- Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia, Portugal. Grant Number: SFRH/BD/37065/2007
Figure S1. The coastal area off Recife. Bathymetric chart with 1-m isobaths depicting an alongshore channel next to the coastline between Boa Viagem and Piedade beaches. The red dots represent tentative estimates of some shark attack locations.
Figure S2. Intensity of fishing effort and seasonality of catches. Chart depicting (a) fishing effort, as the total number of hooks deployed per Julian day, and (b) Julian days with positive capture for taxa caught in a longline survey off Recife. Data correspond to combined years (2004–2011). Note the logarithmic scale of the y-axis in (a).
Figure S3. Proportion trends in the catch composition. Annual variation in the proportion of taxa caught in a longline survey off Recife between 2004 and 2011. O. elasm. and O. teleo. comprise all infrequently caught elasmobranchs and teleosts combined, respectively. Numbers in bars correspond to the number of individuals caught in the respective period. Ph1 corresponds to the period between May 2004 and August 2005 using a different fishing methodology. Asterisks (*) denote years with little valid sampling effort (∼4–7 months) not included in statistical analysis.
Figure S4. Relative catchability by fishing set. Proportion of captures per each of the four longline sets of all fishing trips between October 2007 and December 2011. Bar widths are logarithmically proportional to the number of individuals caught. Horizontal dashed lines represent the 25, 50 and 75% quartiles. LEU = Carcharhinus leucas; CUV = Galeocerdo cuvier; LIM = Carcharhinus limbatus; ACR = Carcharhinus acronotus; CIR = Ginglymostoma cirratum; DAS = Dasyatis spp.; MOB = Mobula spp.; NAR = Aetobatus narinari; ARI = ariids; GYM = Gymnotorax spp.; LAN = Lutjanus analis; LUT = other lutjanids; NOB = Conodon nobilis; ITA = Epinephelus itajara; CHE = chelonids.
Table S1. Fishing effort in the Shark Monitoring Program of Recife. Distribution of fishing sets and deployed hooks in a longline and drumline survey between 2004 and 2011.
Table S2. Monthly frequencies of shark attacks off the Metropolitan Region of Recife every year between 1992 and 2011. Years in bold correspond to the period after the creation of the Shark Monitoring Program. Note that the attack in September 2009 should actually correspond to a drowning followed by scavenging by sharks.
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