Appendix S1. Spearman correlation matrix between continuous predictor variables (n = 105).

Appendix S2. Results from univariate analyses, showing estimated effects, standard error and P-values. For each explanatory variable, the minimum and maximum value is included. The response variables in univariate regressions are Red list classification (n = 105 species) and long-term population trends (n = 77 species).

Appendix S3. Species traits included in the models used for model averaging, i.e. having ΔAICc < 2. A cross sign (×) implies interaction between traits. Key for traits: AAP = adult activity period, BS = body size, HP = number of larval host plants, GT = generation time, OW = overwintering stage, SUB = substrate utilization breadth.

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