Neural network activation during a stop-signal task discriminates cocaine-dependent from non-drug-abusing men

Authors

  • Amanda Elton,

    1. Brain Imaging Research Center, Psychiatric Research Institute, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA
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  • Jonathan Young,

    1. Brain Imaging Research Center, Psychiatric Research Institute, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA
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  • Sonet Smitherman,

    1. Brain Imaging Research Center, Psychiatric Research Institute, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA
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  • Robin E. Gross,

    1. Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA
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  • Tanja Mletzko,

    1. Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA
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  • Clinton D. Kilts

    Corresponding author
    1. Brain Imaging Research Center, Psychiatric Research Institute, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA
    • Correspondence to: Clinton D. Kilts, Psychiatric Research Institute, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 W. Markham St #554, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA. E-mail: cdkilts@uams.edu

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Abstract

Cocaine dependence is defined by a loss of inhibitory control over drug-use behaviors, mirrored by measurable impairments in laboratory tasks of inhibitory control. The current study tested the hypothesis that deficits in multiple subprocesses of behavioral control are associated with reliable neural-processing alterations that define cocaine addiction. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 38 cocaine-dependent men and 27 healthy control men performed a stop-signal task of motor inhibition. An independent component analysis on fMRI time courses identified task-related neural networks attributed to motor, visual, cognitive and affective processes. The statistical associations of these components with five different stop-signal task conditions were selected for use in a linear discriminant analysis to define a classifier for cocaine addiction from a subsample of 26 cocaine-dependent men and 18 controls. Leave-one-out cross-validation accurately classified 89.5% (39/44; chance accuracy = 26/44 = 59.1%) of subjects with 84.6% (22/26) sensitivity and 94.4% (17/18) specificity. The remaining 12 cocaine-dependent and 9 control men formed an independent test sample, for which accuracy of the classifier was 81.9% (17/21; chance accuracy = 12/21 = 57.1%) with 75% (9/12) sensitivity and 88.9% (8/9) specificity. The cocaine addiction classification score was significantly correlated with a measure of impulsiveness as well as the duration of cocaine use for cocaine-dependent men. The results of this study support the ability of a pattern of multiple neural network alterations associated with inhibitory motor control to define a binary classifier for cocaine addiction.

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