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Impaired emotional empathy and related social network deficits in cocaine users

Authors

  • Katrin H. Preller,

    1. Experimental and Clinical Pharmacopsychology, Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, University Hospital of Psychiatry, Switzerland
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  • Lea M. Hulka,

    1. Experimental and Clinical Pharmacopsychology, Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, University Hospital of Psychiatry, Switzerland
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  • Matthias Vonmoos,

    1. Experimental and Clinical Pharmacopsychology, Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, University Hospital of Psychiatry, Switzerland
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  • Daniela Jenni,

    1. Experimental and Clinical Pharmacopsychology, Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, University Hospital of Psychiatry, Switzerland
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  • Markus R. Baumgartner,

    1. Center of Forensic Hairanalytics, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Zurich, Switzerland
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  • Erich Seifritz,

    1. Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, University Hospital of Psychiatry, Switzerland
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  • Isabel Dziobek,

    1. Cluster Languages of Emotion, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany
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  • Boris B. Quednow

    Corresponding author
    1. Experimental and Clinical Pharmacopsychology, Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, University Hospital of Psychiatry, Switzerland
    2. Zurich Center for Integrative Human Physiology, University of Zurich, Switzerland
    • Correspondence to: Boris B. Quednow and Katrin H. Preller, Clinical and Experimental Pharmacopsychology, University Hospital of Psychiatry, Lenggstrasse 31, CH-8032 Zurich, Switzerland. E-mail: quednow@bli.uzh.ch; preller@bli.uzh.ch

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Abstract

Chronic cocaine users consistently display neurochemical and functional alterations in brain areas involved in social cognition (e.g. medial and orbitofrontal cortex). Although social functioning plays a crucial role in the development and treatment of drug dependence, studies investigating social cognition in cocaine users are lacking. Therefore, we investigated mental perspective taking (‘theory of mind’) and emotional and cognitive empathy in recreational (RCU) and dependent (DCU) cocaine users. Furthermore, we related these measures to real-life indicators of social functioning. One-hundred cocaine users (69 RCU, 31 DCU) and 68 stimulant-naïve healthy controls were tested with the Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET), Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC) and Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). The Social Network Questionnaire was conducted to assess social network size. Furthermore, participants provided information on committed criminal offenses. RCU and DCU showed less emotional empathy compared to controls (MET), whereas cognitive empathy was not impaired (MET, RMET). Additionally, DCU made more errors in mental perspective taking (MASC). Notably, cocaine users committed more criminal offenses and displayed a smaller social network and higher cocaine use was correlated with less social contacts. Diminished mental perspective taking was tentatively correlated with more intense cocaine use as well. Finally, younger age of onset of cocaine use was associated with more pronounced empathy impairment. In conclusion, social cognition impairments in cocaine users were related to real-life social functioning and should therefore be considered in therapy and prevention strategies.

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