SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). World Drug Report. 2011. New York: United Nations Publication, Sales no. E.11.XI.10.
  • 2
    Uhl A., Springer A., Kobrna U., Gnambs T., Pfarrhofer D. Austrian wide representative ascertainment of substance-use; ascertainment 2008, Volume 1: Research report. Vienna: Federal Ministry for Health; 2009.
  • 3
    Uhl A., Seidler D. Prevalence Estimate of Problematic Opiate Consumption in Austria, 2nd revised edn. Vienna: Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Addiction Research (LBISucht), 2001. Available at: http://www.api.or.at/lbi/pdf/prevest.pdf (Archived by WebCite® at http://www.webcitation.org/6FTtVR8Ss on 29 March 2013) (accessed 15 August 2006).
  • 4
    Austrian Federal Institute for Public Health. Drug report 2005. Vienna, Austria: Federal Institute for Public Health, 2008.
  • 5
    Klupp N., Risser D., Heinzl H., Bauer G. Forensic autopsies from 1984 to 1993 in Vienna, Austria. J Forensic Sci 1997; 42: 675677.
  • 6
    Federal Ministry of Internal Affairs. Drug report 1994. Vienna, Austria: Federal Ministry of the Interior, 1995.
  • 7
    Risser D., Hönigschnabl S., Stichenwirth M., Sebald D., Kaff G., Schneider B. et al. Drug-related emergencies and drug-related deaths in Vienna, 1995–1997. Drug Alcohol Depend 2001; 61: 307313.
  • 8
    Risser D., Uhl A., Oberndorfer F., Hönigschnabl S., Stichenwirth M., Hirz R. et al. Is there a relationship between street heroin purity and drug-related emergencies and/or drug-related deaths? An analysis from Vienna, Austria. J Forensic Sci 2007; 52: 11711176.
  • 9
    Aeschbach Jachmann C., Jagsch R., Winklbaur B., Matzenauer C., Fischer G. Office-based treatment in opioid dependence: a critical survey of prescription practices for opioid maintenance medications and concomitant benzodiazepines in Vienna, Austria. Eur Addict Res 2008; 14: 206212.
  • 10
    Stringer J., Welsh C., Tommasello A. Methadone-associated Q-T interval prolongation and torsades de pointes. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2009; 66: 825833.
  • 11
    Darke S., Kaye S., Duflu J. Systemic disease among cases of fatal opioid toxicity. Addiction 2006; 101: 12991305.
  • 12
    Karch S. B. Karch's Pathology of Drug Abuse, 4th edn. London: CRC Press; 2009.
  • 13
    Milroy C. M., Parai J. L. The histopathology of drugs of abuse. Histopathology 2011; 59: 579593.
  • 14
    Dettmeyer R., Friedrich K., Schmidt P., Madea B. Heroin-associated myocardial damages—conventional and immunohistochemical investigations. Forensic Sci Int 2009; 187: 4246.
  • 15
    Dressler F. A., Roberts W. C. Modes of death and types of cardiac diseases in opiate addicts: analysis of 168 necropsy cases. Am J Cardiol 1989; 64: 909920.
  • 16
    Rajs J., Falconer B. Cardiac lesions in intravenous drug addicts. Forensic Sci Int 1979; 13: 193209.
  • 17
    Menda K. B., Gorbach S. L. Favorable experience with bacterial endocarditis in heroin addicts. Ann Intern Med 1973; 78: 2532.
  • 18
    Camelliti P., Borg T. K., Kohl P. Structural and functional characterisation of cardiac fibroblasts. Cardiovasc Res 2005; 65: 4051.
  • 19
    Fan D., Takawale A., Lee J., Kassiri Z. Cardiac fibroblasts, fibrosis and extracellular matrix remodelling in heart disease. Fibrogenesis Tissue Repair 2012; 5: 113.
  • 20
    Manabe I., Shindo T., Nagai R. Gene expression in fibroblasts and fibrosis: involvement in cardiac hypertrophy. Circ Res 2002; 91: 11031113.
  • 21
    Burlew B. S., Weber K. T. Connective tissue and the heart. Functional significance and regulatory mechanisms. Cardiol Clin 2000; 18: 435442.
  • 22
    Weber K. T. From inflammation to fibrosis: a stiff stretch of highway. Hypertension 2004; 43: 716719.
  • 23
    Tenhunen O., Rysä J., Ilves M., Soini Y., Ruskoaho H., Leskinen H. Identification of cell cycle regulatory and inflammatory genes as predominant targets of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in the heart. Circ Res 2006; 99: 485493.
  • 24
    Sun Y., Weber K. T. Infarct scar: a dynamic tissue. Cardiovasc Res 2000; 46: 250256.
  • 25
    Risser D., Schneider B. Drug-related deaths between 1985 and 1992 examined at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Vienna, Austria. Addiction 1994; 89: 851857.
  • 26
    European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA). Collection and Analysis of Information on Drug-Related Deaths, EMCDDA Scientific Report [online]. Lisbon, Portugal: Union Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, 2001. Available at: http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/?nnodeid=1419 (Archived by WebCite® at http://www.webcitation.org/6FTt9bNSM on 29 March 2013) (accessed 5 July 2006).
  • 27
    Vycudilik W. Comparative morphine determination in parts of the brain using combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A possibility for assessing survival time. Z Rechtsmed 1988; 99: 263272.
  • 28
    Brunton L., Chabner B., Knollman B. Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th edn. New York, Oxford: Pergamon Press; 1991.
  • 29
    SAS Institute Inc. Base SAS® 9.2 Procedures Guide. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.; 2011.
  • 30
    Burke A. P., Kalra P., Li L., Smialek J., Virmani R. Infectious endocarditis and sudden unexpected death: incidence and morphology of lesions in intravenous addicts and non-drug abusers. J Heart Valve Dis 1997; 6: 198203.
  • 31
    Nerantzis C. E., Koulouris S. N., Marianou S. K., Pastromas S. C., Koutsaftis P. N., Agapitos E. B. Histologic findings of the sinus node and the perinodal area in street heroin addicts, victims of sudden unexpected death. J Forensic Sci 2011; 56: 645648.
  • 32
    Brashear R. E., Cornog J. L., Forney R. B. Cardiovascular effects of heroin in the dog. Anesth Analg 1973; 52: 323327.
  • 33
    Frishman W. H., Del Vecchio A., Sanal S., Ismail A. Cardiovascular manifestations of substance abuse: part 2: alcohol, amphetamines, heroin, cannabis, and caffeine. Heart Dis 2003; 5: 253271.
  • 34
    Passarino G., Ciccone G., Sirgusa R., Tappero P., Mollo F. Histopathological findings in 851 autopsies of drug addicts, with toxicologic and virologic correlations. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2005; 26: 106116.
  • 35
    Kitamura M., Shimizu M., Kita Y., Yoshio H., Ino H., Misawa K. et al. Quantitative evaluation of the rate of myocardial interstitial fibrosis using a personal computer. Jpn Circ J 1997; 61: 8186.
  • 36
    St John Sutton M. G., Lie J. T., Anderson K. R., O'Brien P. C., Frye R. L. Histopathological specificity of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Myocardial fibre disarray and myocardial fibrosis. Br Heart J 1980; 44: 433443.
  • 37
    Tanaka M., Fujiwara H., Ondera T., Wu D. J., Hameshima Y., Kawai C. Quantitative analysis of myocardial fibrosis in normals, hypertensive hearts, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Br Heart J 1986; 55: 575581.
  • 38
    Querejeta R., Varo N., Lopez B., Larman M., Artiňano E., Etayo J. C. et al. Serum carboxy-terminal propeptide of procollagen type I is a marker of myocardial fibrosis in hypertensive heart disease. Circulation 2000; 101: 17291735.
  • 39
    Vasiljević J. D., Popović Z. B., Otasević P., Popović Z. V., Vidacović R., Mirić M. et al. Myocardial fibrosis assessment by semiquantitative, point-counting and computer-based methods in patients with heart muscle disease: a comparative study. Histopathology 2001; 38: 338343.
  • 40
    Gaspard G. J., Pasumarthi K. B. Quantification of cardiac fibrosis by colour-subtractive computer-assisted image analysis. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2008; 35: 679686.
  • 41
    Vasan R. S., Evans J. C., Benjamin E. J., Levy D., Larson M. G., Sundstrom J. et al. Relations of serum aldosterone to cardiac structure: gender-related differences in the Framingham Heart Study. Hypertension 2004; 43: 957962.
  • 42
    Campbell D. J., Somaratne J. B., Jenkins A. J., Prior D. L., Yii M., Kenny J. F. et al. Differences in myocardial structure and coronary microvasculature between men and women with coronary artery disease. Hypertension 2011; 57: 186192.
  • 43
    European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. Polydrug Use: Patterns and Responses. Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union, 2009. Available at: http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_93217_EN_EMCDDA_SI09_polydrug%20use.pdf (Archived by WebCite® at http://www.webcitation.org/6FTtmBXol on 29 March 2013) (accessed 25 March 2013).
  • 44
    George S., Moreira K., Fabohunda M. Methadone and the heart: what the clinican needs to know. Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2008; 3: 297302.
  • 45
    Fareed A., Vayalapalli S., Byrd-Sellers J., Casarella J., Drexler K., Amar R. et al. Onsite QTc interval screening for patients in methadone maintenance treatment. J Addict Dis 2010; 1: 1522.