Motivational interviewing to enhance nicotine patch treatment for smoking cessation among homeless smokers: a randomized controlled trial

Authors

  • Kolawole S. Okuyemi,

    1. Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    2. Program in Health Disparities Research, University Of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    3. Center for Health Equity, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    4. Masonic Cancer Center, University Of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Kate Goldade,

    1. Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    2. Program in Health Disparities Research, University Of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Guy-Lucien Whembolua,

    1. Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    2. Program in Health Disparities Research, University Of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    3. Center for Health Equity, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Janet L. Thomas,

    1. Program in Health Disparities Research, University Of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    2. Center for Health Equity, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    3. Masonic Cancer Center, University Of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    4. Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Sara Eischen,

    1. Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    2. Program in Health Disparities Research, University Of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Barrett Sewali,

    1. Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    2. Program in Health Disparities Research, University Of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Hongfei Guo,

    1. Division of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Clinical and Translational Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    Search for more papers by this author
  • John E. Connett,

    1. Division of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Clinical and Translational Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Jon Grant,

    1. Department of Psychiatry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Jasjit S. Ahluwalia,

    1. Program in Health Disparities Research, University Of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    2. Center for Health Equity, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    3. Masonic Cancer Center, University Of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    4. Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Ken Resnicow,

    1. Department of Health Behavior and Health Education, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Greg Owen,

    1. Wilder Foundation, Saint Paul, MN, USA
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Lillian Gelberg,

    1. Department of Family Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Don Des Jarlais

    1. Baron Edmond de Rothschild Chemical Dependency Institute, Beth Israel Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY, USA
    Search for more papers by this author

Correspondence to: Kolawole S. Okuyemi, Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, 717 Delaware Street SE. Ste. 166, Minneapolis, MN 55414, USA. E-mail: kokuyemi@umn.edu

Abstract

Aims

To assess the effects of adding motivational interviewing (MI) counseling to nicotine patch for smoking cessation among homeless smokers.

Design

Two-group randomized controlled trial with 26-week follow-up.

Participants and setting

A total of 430 homeless smokers from emergency shelters and transitional housing units in Minneapolis/St Paul, Minnesota, USA.

Intervention and measurements

All participants received 8-week treatment of 21-mg nicotine patch. In addition, participants in the intervention group received six individual sessions of MI counseling which aimed to increase adherence to nicotine patches and to motivate cessation. Participants in the standard care control group received one session of brief advice to quit smoking. Primary outcome was 7-day abstinence from cigarette smoking at 26 weeks, as validated by exhaled carbon monoxide and salivary cotinine.

Findings

Using intention-to-treat analysis, verified 7-day abstinence rate at week 26 for the intervention group was non-significantly higher than for the control group (9.3% versus 5.6%, P = 0.15). Among participants who did not quit smoking, reduction in number of cigarettes from baseline to week 26 was equally high in both study groups (−13.7 ± 11.9 for MI versus −13.5 ± 16.2 for standard care).

Conclusions

Adding motivational interviewing counseling to nicotine patch did not increase smoking rate significantly at 26-week follow-up for homeless smokers.

Ancillary