• 1
    Robinson T. E., Berridge K. C. The neural basis of drug craving—an incentive-sensitization theory of addiction. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 1993; 18: 247291.
  • 2
    Field M., Cox W. M. Attentional bias in addictive behaviors: a review of its development, causes, and consequences. Drug Alcohol Depend 2008; 97: 120.
  • 3
    Field M., Schoenmakers T., Wiers R. W. Cognitive processes in alcohol binges: a review and research agenda. Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2008; 1: 263279.
  • 4
    Robinson T. E., Berridge K. C. The incentive sensitization theory of addiction: some current issues. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2008; 12: 31373146.
  • 5
    Townshend J. M., Duka T. Attentional bias associated with alcohol cues: differences between heavy and occasional social drinkers. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2001; 157: 6774.
  • 6
    Rose A. K., Duka T. Effects of alcohol on inhibitory processes. Behav Pharmacol 2008; 19: 284291.
  • 7
    Fadardi J. S., Cox W. M. Reversing the sequence: reducing alcohol consumption by overcoming alcohol attentional bias. Drug Alcohol Depend 2009; 101: 137145.
  • 8
    Marhe R., Waters A. J., van de Wetering B. J., Franken I. H. Implicit and explicit drug-related cognitions during detoxification treatment are associated with drug relapse: an ecological momentary assessment study. J Consult Clin Psychol 2013; 81: 112.
  • 9
    Field M., Eastwood B. Experimental manipulation of attentional bias increases the motivation to drink alcohol. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2005; 183: 350357.
  • 10
    Schoenmakers T., Wiers R. W., Jones B. T., Bruce G., Jansen A. T. M. Attentional re-training decreases attentional bias in heavy drinkers without generalization. Addiction 2007; 102: 399405.
  • 11
    Hogarth L., Dickinson A., Duka T. Detection versus sustained attention to drug cues have dissociable roles in mediating drug seeking behavior. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2009; 17: 2130.
  • 12
    Hogarth L., Dickinson A., Janowski M., Nikitina A., Duka T. The role of attentional bias in mediating human drug-seeking behaviour. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2008; 201: 2941.
  • 13
    El-Amamy H., Holland P. C. Dissociable effects of disconnecting amygdala central nucleus from the ventral tegmental area or substantia nigra on learned orienting and incentive motivation. Eur J Neurosci 2007; 25: 15571567.
  • 14
    Groshek F., Kerfoot E., McKenna V., Polackwich A. S., Gallagher M., Holland P. C. Amygdala central nucleus function is necessary for learning, but not expression, of conditioned auditory orienting. Behav Neurosci 2005; 119: 202212.
  • 15
    Armel K. C., Beaumel A., Rangel A. Biasing simple choices by manipulating relative visual attention. Judgm Decis Mak 2008; 3: 396403.
  • 16
    Krajbich I., Armel C., Rangel A. Visual fixations and the computation and comparison of value in simple choice. Nat Neurosci 2010; 13: 12921298.
  • 17
    Saunders J. B., Aasland O. G., Babor T. F., Delafuente J. R., Grant M. Development of the Alcohol-Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)—WHO collaborative project on early detection of persons with harmful alcohol-consumption. Addiction 1993; 88: 791804.
  • 18
    Sobell L. C., Sobell M. B. Timeline follow-back: a technique for assessing self-reported ethanol consumption. In: Allen J. , Litten R. Z. , editors. Measuring Alcohol Consumption: Psychosocial and Biological Methods. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 1992, p. 4172.
  • 19
    Hogarth L., Chase H. W. Parallel goal-directed and habitual control of human drug-seeking: implications for dependence vulnerability. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 2011; 37: 261276.
  • 20
    Field M., Mogg K., Bradley B. P. Eye movements to smoking-related cues: effects of nicotine deprivation. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2004; 173: 116123.
  • 21
    Dwyer D. M., Hodder K. I., Honey R. C. Perceptual learning in humans: roles of preexposure schedule, feedback, and discrimination assay. Q J Exp Psychol B 2004; 57: 245259.
  • 22
    Rose A. K., Duka T. Effects of dose and time on the ability of alcohol to prime social drinkers. Behav Pharmacol 2006; 17: 6170.
  • 23
    Preacher K. J., Hayes A. F. SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behav Res Methods Instrum Comput 2004; 36: 717731.
  • 24
    Preacher K. J., Hayes A. F. Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behav Res Methods 2008; 40: 879891.
  • 25
    Hayes A. F. An Introduction to Mediation, Moderation, and Conditional Process Analysis: A Regression-Based Approach. New York: Guilford Press; 2013.
  • 26
    Shrout P. E., Bolger N. Mediation in experimental and nonexperimental studies: new procedures and recommendations. Psychol Methods 2002; 7: 422445.
  • 27
    Preacher K. J., Kelley K. Effect size measures for mediation models: quantitative strategies for communicating indirect effects. Psychol Methods 2011; 16: 93115.
  • 28
    Fairchild A. J., MacKinnon D. P., Taborga M. P., Taylor A. B. R-2 effect-size measures for mediation analysis. Behav Res Methods 2009; 41: 486498.
  • 29
    Hogarth L. Goal-directed and transfer-cue-elicited drug-seeking are dissociated by pharmacotherapy: evidence for independent additive controllers. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 2012; 38: 266278.
  • 30
    Hogarth L., Attwood A. S., Bate H. A., Munafo M. R. Acute alcohol impairs human goal-directed action. Biol Psychol 2012; 90: 154160.
  • 31
    Robinson T. E., Flagel S. B. Dissociating the predictive and incentive motivational properties of reward-related cues through the study of individual differences. Biol Psychiatry 2009; 65: 869873.
  • 32
    Hogarth L., Balleine B. W., Corbit L. H., Killcross S. Associative learning mechanisms underpinning the transition from recreational drug use to addiction. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2012; Epub ahead of print.
  • 33
    Hogarth L., Chase H. W., Baess K. Impaired goal-directed behavioural control in human impulsivity. Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 2012; 65: 305316.
  • 34
    Klossek U. M., Russell J., Dickinson A. The control of instrumental action following outcome devaluation in young children aged between 1 and 4 years. J Exp Psychol Gen 2008; 137: 3951.
  • 35
    Belin D., Jonkman S., Dickinson A., Robbins T. W., Everitt B. J. Parallel and interactive learning processes within the basal ganglia: relevance for the understanding of addiction. Behav Brain Res 2009; 199: 89102.
  • 36
    Schoenmakers T. M., de Bruin M., Lux I. F. M., Goertz A. G., Van Kerkhof D. H. A. T., Wiers R. W. Clinical effectiveness of attentional bias modification training in abstinent alcoholic patients. Drug Alcohol Depend 2010; 109: 3036.
  • 37
    Bartholow B. D., Lust S. A., Tragesser S. L. Specificity of P3 event-related potential reactivity to alcohol cues in individuals low in alcohol sensitivity. Psychol Addict Behav 2010; 24: 220228.
  • 38
    King A. C., de Wit H., McNamara P. J., Cao D. Rewarding, stimulant, and sedative alcohol responses and relationship to future binge drinking. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2011; 68: 389399.