• 1
    Leon D. A., Shkolnikov V. M., McKee M. Alcohol and Russian mortality: a continuing crisis. Addiction 2009; 104: 16301636.
  • 2
    Leon D. A. Trends in European life expectancy: a salutary view [Editorial]. Int J Epidemiol 2011; 40: 271277.
  • 3
    Popova S., Rehm J., Patra J., Zatonski W. Comparing alcohol consumption in central and eastern Europe to other European countries. Alcohol Alcohol 2007; 42: 465473.
  • 4
    Nemtsov A. V. Estimates of total alcohol consumption in Russia, 1980–1994. Drug Alcohol Depend 2000; 58: 133142.
  • 5
    Shield K. D., Rylett M., Gmel G., Kehoe-Chan T. A., Rehm J. Global alcohol exposure estimates by country, territory and region for 2005—a contribution to the Comparative Risk Assessment for the 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study. Addiction 2013; 108: 912922.
  • 6
    McKee M., Britton A. The positive relationship between alcohol and heart disease in eastern Europe: potential physiological mechanisms. J R Soc Med 1998; 91: 402407.
  • 7
    Rehm J., Room R., Graham K., Monteiro M., Gmel G., Sempos C. T. The relationship of average volume of alcohol consumption and patterns of drinking to burden of disease: an overview. Addiction 2003; 98: 12091228.
  • 8
    Rehm J., Sulkowska U., Manczuk M., Boffetta P., Powles J., Popova S. et al. Alcohol accounts for a high proportion of premature mortality in central and eastern Europe. Int J Epidemiol 2007; 36: 458467.
  • 9
    Nemtsov A. V. Alcohol-related human losses in Russia in the 1980s and 1990s. Addiction 2002; 97: 14131425.
  • 10
    Zaridze D., Brennan P., Boreham J., Boroda A., Karpov R., Lazarev A. et al. Alcohol and cause-specific mortality in Russia: a retrospective case–control study of 48 557 adult deaths [Research Support, non-US Government]. Lancet 2009; 373: 22012214.
  • 11
    Solodun Y. V., Monakhova Y. B., Kuballa T., Samokhvalov A. V., Rehm J., Lachenmeier D. W. Unrecorded alcohol consumption in Russia: toxic denaturants and disinfectants pose additional risks. Interdiscip Toxicol 2011; 4: 198205.
  • 12
    McKee M., Suzcs S., Sarvary A., Adany R., Kiryanov N., Saburova L. et al. The composition of surrogate alcohols consumed in Russia. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2005; 29: 18841888.
  • 13
    Gil A., Polikina O., Koroleva N., McKee M., Tomkins S., Leon D. A. Availability and characteristics of nonbeverage alcohols sold in 17 Russian cities in 2007. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2009; 33: 7985.
  • 14
    Giannini E. G., Testa R., Savarino V. Liver enzyme alteration: a guide for clinicians. CMAJ 2005; 172: 367379.
  • 15
    Salaspuro M. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin as compared to other markers of alcoholism: a systematic review. Alcohol 1999; 19: 261271.
  • 16
    Liangpunsakul S., Qi R., Crabb D. W., Witzmann F. Relationship between alcohol drinking and aspartate aminotransferase : alanine aminotransferase (AST : ALT) ratio, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and apolipoprotein A1 and B in the U.S. population. J Stud Alcohol Drugs 2010; 71: 249252.
  • 17
    Conigrave K. M., Degenhardt L. J., Whitfield J. B., Saunders J. B., Helander A., Tabakoff B. CDT, GGT, and AST as markers of alcohol use: the WHO/ISBRA collaborative project. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2002; 26: 332339.
  • 18
    Scouller K., Conigrave K. M., Macaskill P., Irwig L., Whitfield J. B. Should we use carbohydrate-deficient transferrin instead of gamma-glutamyltransferase for detecting problem drinkers? A systematic review and metaanalysis. Clin Chem 2000; 46: 18941902.
  • 19
    Hietala J., Koivisto H., Anttila P., Niemela O. Comparison of the combined marker GGT–CDT and the conventional laboratory markers of alcohol abuse in heavy drinkers, moderate drinkers and abstainers. Alcohol Alcohol 2006; 41: 528533.
  • 20
    Laatikainen T., Alho H., Vartiainen E., Jousilahti P., Sillanaukee P., Puska P. Self-reported alcohol consumption and association to carbohydrate-deficient transferrin and gamma-glutamyltransferase in a random sample of the general population in the Republic of Karelia, Russia and in North Karelia, Finland. Alcohol Alcohol 2002; 37: 282288.
  • 21
    Tomkins S., Shkolnikov V., Andreev E., Kiryanov N., Leon D. A., McKee M. et al. Identifying the determinants of premature mortality in Russia: overcoming a methodological challenge. BMC Public Health 2007; 7: 343.
  • 22
    Leon D. A., Saburova L., Tomkins S., Andreev E., Kiryanov N., McKee M. et al. Hazardous alcohol drinking and premature mortality in Russia: a population based case–control study. Lancet 2007; 369: 20012009.
  • 23
    Nemtsov A. Russia: alcohol yesterday and today. Addiction 2005; 100: 146149.
  • 24
    Dawson D. A. Methodological issues in measuring alcohol use. Alcohol Res Health 2003; 27: 1829.
  • 25
    Schumann G., Bonora R., Ceriotti F., Ferard G., Ferrero C. A., Franck P. F. et al. IFCC primary reference procedures for the measurement of catalytic activity concentrations of enzymes at 37 degrees C. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. Part 5. Reference procedure for the measurement of catalytic concentration of aspartate aminotransferase. Clin Chem Lab Med 2002; 40: 725733.
  • 26
    Schumann G., Bonora R., Ceriotti F., Ferard G., Ferrero C. A., Franck P. F. et al. IFCC primary reference procedures for the measurement of catalytic activity concentrations of enzymes at 37 degrees C. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. Part 4. Reference procedure for the measurement of catalytic concentration of alanine aminotransferase. Clin Chem Lab Med 2002; 40: 718724.
  • 27
    Persijn J. P., van der Slik W., Zwart W. A. Colorimetric assay for gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Clin Chim Acta 1971; 35: 239240.
  • 28
    Vector Best. Vector Best Export catalogue: EIA kits. Available at: (accessed 22 August 2011) (Archived at on 6 June 2013).
  • 29
    Schellenberg F., Wielders J. P. Evaluation of capillary electrophoresis assay for CDT on SEBIA's Capillarys System: intra and inter laboratory precision, reference interval and cut-off [Evaluation Studies]. Clin Chim Acta 2010; 411: 18881893.
  • 30
    Kenan N., Husand S., Helander A. Importance of HPLC confirmation of problematic carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) results from a multicapillary electrophoresis routine method. Clin Chim Acta 2010; 411: 19451950.
  • 31
    Helander A., Wielders J. P., Jeppsson J. O., Weykamp C., Siebelder C., Anton R. F. et al. Toward standardization of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) measurements: II. Performance of a laboratory network running the HPLC candidate reference measurement procedure and evaluation of a candidate reference material. Clin Chem Lab Med 2010; 48: 15851592.
  • 32
    Benichou J. A review of adjusted estimators of attributable risk. Stat Methods Med Res 2001; 10: 196216.
  • 33
    Sillanaukee P., Strid N., Allen J. P., Litten R. Z. Possible reasons why heavy drinking increases carbohydrate-deficient transferrin. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2001; 25: 3440.
  • 34
    Helander A., Zheng Y. Molecular species of the alcohol biomarker phosphatidylethanol in human blood measured by LC-MS [Research Support, non-US Government Validation Studies]. Clin Chem 2009; 55: 13951405.
  • 35
    Zheng Y., Beck O., Helander A. Method development for routine liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry measurement of the alcohol biomarker phosphatidylethanol (PEth) in blood [Research Support, non-US Government]. Clin Chim Acta 2011; 412: 14281435.