Childhood conduct disorder trajectories, prior risk factors and cannabis use at age 16: birth cohort study
Article first published online: 12 JUL 2013
© 2013 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Volume 108, Issue 12, pages 2129–2138, December 2013
How to Cite
Heron, J., Barker, E. D., Joinson, C., Lewis, G., Hickman, M., Munafò, M. and Macleod, J. (2013), Childhood conduct disorder trajectories, prior risk factors and cannabis use at age 16: birth cohort study. Addiction, 108: 2129–2138. doi: 10.1111/add.12268
- Issue published online: 15 NOV 2013
- Article first published online: 12 JUL 2013
- Accepted manuscript online: 4 JUN 2013 08:40PM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 24 MAY 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 13 DEC 2012
- Manuscript Received: 5 OCT 2012
- UK Medical Research Council. Grant Numbers: 74882, G0800612, G0802736
- Wellcome Trust. Grant Number: 076467
- University of Bristol
- cannabis problems;
- cannabis use;
- conduct disorder;
- risk factors;
To investigate the prevalence of cannabis use and problem use in boys and girls at age 16 years, and to investigate the role of adversity in early life and of conduct disorder between the ages of 4 and 13 years as risk factors for these outcomes.
Birth cohort study.
A total of 4159 (2393 girls) participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort providing information on cannabis use at age 16.
Cannabis use and problem cannabis use at age 16 were assessed by postal questionnaire. Material adversity, maternal substance use, maternal mental health and child conduct disorder were all assessed by maternal report.
Cannabis use was more common among girls than boys (21.4% versus 18.3%, P = 0.005). Problem cannabis use was more common in boys than girls (3.6% versus 2.8%, P = 0.007). Early-onset persistent conduct problems were associated strongly with problem cannabis use [odds ratio (OR) = 6.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.06–10.28]. Residence in subsidized housing (OR = 3.10, 95% CI = 1.95, 4.92); maternal cannabis use (OR 8.84, 95% CI 5.64–13.9) and any maternal smoking in the postnatal period (OR = 2.69, 95% CI = 1.90–3.81) all predicted problem cannabis use. Attributable risks for adolescent problem cannabis use associated with the above factors were 25, 13, 17 and 24%, respectively.
Maternal smoking and cannabis use, early material disadvantage and early-onset persistent conduct problems are important risk factors for adolescent problem cannabis use. This may have implications for prevention.