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Appendix S1 Histogram of the gambling scale based on the methods described in Beaver et al. (Addiction, 2010).

Appendix S2 Twin–twin scatterplots based on the gambling scale described in Beaver et al. (Addiction, 2010).

Appendix S3 Regression-based twin analyses of the gambling scale described in Beaver et al. (Addiction, 2010).

Appendix S4 Transformation and analysis of the ‘maximum lost in a year’ variable.

Table S1 Endorsement frequencies of gambling items among the full Add Health sample, and among the twin subsample.

Table S2 Prevalences of different levels of the ‘maximum lost in a year variable’ in the Add Health same-sex twin sample.

Table S3 Cell frequencies and univariate twin correlations for the three-level ‘maximum lost in a year’ variable.

Table S4 Estimates of the proportion of variation in two gambling phenotypes from full models including additive genetic, shared environmental and unique environmental factors, based on using data from both like- and unlike-sex twin pairs.

Table S5 Reduced model estimates of the proportion of variation in two gambling phenotypes attributable to shared and unique environmental factors, based on using data from like-sex twin pairs.

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