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Figure S1 (a) Methamphetamine-dependent (MD) (n = 68) whole brain patterns of activation for the decision phase of the task relative to baseline. F-threshold was set at 3.9. A priori voxelwise probability of P < 0.05 in a cluster of 768 μl (12 voxels) resulted in an a posteriori probability of P < 0.05. (b) Healthy comparison (CTL) (n = 40) whole brain patterns of activation for the decision phase of the task relative to baseline. F-threshold was set at 4.1. A priori voxelwise probability of P < 0.05 in a cluster of 768 μl (12 voxels) resulted in an a posteriori probability of P < 0.05

Figure S2 Group [methamphetamine-dependent (MD) versus healthy comparison (CTL) participants] × condition (risky versus safe) clusters of significant difference for whole brain patterns of activation during the decision phase of the task. F-threshold was set at 3.93, P < 0.05. A priori voxelwise probability of P < 0.05 in a cluster of 768 μl (12 voxels) resulted in an a posteriori probability of P < 0.05

Figure S3 Between-group (n = 108) whole brain patterns of activation for the decision phase of the task. F-threshold was set at 3.93, P < 0.05. A priori voxelwise probability of P < 0.05 in a cluster of 768 μl (12 voxels) resulted in an a posteriori probability of P < 0.05

Figure S4 Relationship between sensation-seeking score and brain activation during risky decisions among methamphetamine-dependent (MD) (n = 68) in the right posterior insula. Analysis was performed voxelwise and cluster corrections were determined in AlphaSim. A priori voxelwise probability of P < 0.05 in a cluster of 384 μl for the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and 320 μl for the insula (six and five voxels, respectively) resulted in an a posteriori probability of P < 0.05. There was a positive relationship between sensation-seeking and right posterior insula activation when controlling for impulsivity (r = 0.30, P = 0.01)

Figure S5 Relationship between impulsivity score and brain activation during risky decisions among methamphetamine-dependent (MD) (n = 68) in the bilateral posterior insula. Analysis was performed voxelwise and cluster corrections were determined in AlphaSim. A priori voxelwise probability of P < 0.05 in a cluster of 384 μl for the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and 320 μl for the insula (six and five voxels, respectively) resulted in an a posteriori probability of P < 0.05. There was a negative relationship between impulsivity and bilateral posterior insula activation when controlling for sensation-seeking (r = −0.031, P = 0.01).

Figure S6 A linear mixed-effects model examining group by outcome interaction identified a cluster in the right anterior cingulate (volume: 1216 μl, center of mass x, y, z = −9, 40, −5; Brodmann area 32). Whereas healthy comparison (CTL) showed an increase in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activation in proportion to reward size (loss < safe reward < risky reward), methamphetamine-dependent (MD) did not have differential activation to reward size. Neither MD nor CTL showed a relationship between risky choices following a loss and activation when receiving a loss. These data suggest that MD did not differentiate between reward size in the ACC, whereas CTL had greater activation when receiving larger rewards relative to smaller rewards or losses. Activation during reward did not relate to risk-taking

Table S1 Correlations among age, substance use, psychometrics and task behavior. Risk-taking was not correlated significantly with any substance use data or personality measures

Table S2 Significant activation clusters among methamphetamine-dependent (MD) (n = 68) across the whole brain for the Risky Gains Task relative to baseline

Table S3 Significant activation clusters among healthy comparison participants (CTL) (n = 40) across the whole brain for the Risky Gains Task relative to baseline

Table S4 Significant activation clusters across the whole brain for the group by condition contrast of the Risky Gains Task [methamphetamine-dependent (MD) versus healthy comparison participants (CTL), safe versus risky]

Table S5 Significant activation clusters across the whole brain for the group contrast of the Risky Gains Task [methamphetamine-dependent (MD) < healthy comparison participants (CTL), CTL < MD)]

Table S6 Cluster with activation during a risky decision associated significantly with sensation-seeking among methamphetamine-dependent (MD) participants

Table S7 Cluster with activation during a risky decision associated significantly with impulsivity among methamphetamine-dependent (MD) participants

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