Parental monitoring trajectories and gambling among a longitudinal cohort of urban youth
Article first published online: 10 DEC 2013
© 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction
Volume 109, Issue 6, pages 977–985, June 2014
How to Cite
Lee, G. P., Stuart, E. A., Ialongo, N. S. and Martins, S. S. (2014), Parental monitoring trajectories and gambling among a longitudinal cohort of urban youth. Addiction, 109: 977–985. doi: 10.1111/add.12399
- Issue published online: 5 MAY 2014
- Article first published online: 10 DEC 2013
- Accepted manuscript online: 6 NOV 2013 03:40AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 24 OCT 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 24 JUN 2013
- Manuscript Received: 29 APR 2013
- National Institute of Child and Human Development. Grant Number: R01 HD060072
- National Institute of Mental Health. Grant Numbers: T32 MH18834, P30 MH086043
- National Institute of Drug Abuse. Grant Number: R37 DA011795
- Gambling prevention;
- general growth mixture model;
- low socio-economic status;
- parental monitoring;
- problem gambling;
To test the strength of the association between parental monitoring trajectories throughout early adolescence (ages 11–14) and gambling behaviours by young adulthood (age 22).
Longitudinal cohort design.
The sample of 514 participants with gambling data between ages 16–22 and parental monitoring data between ages 11–14 were predominantly African American and received subsidized lunches at age 6.
The South Oaks Gambling Screen and South Oaks Gambling Screen–Revised for Adolescents collected self-reports on annual gambling and gambling problems between ages 16–22. The Parental Monitoring Subscale of the Structured Interview of Parent Management Skills and Practices–Youth Version collected self-reports on annual parental monitoring between ages 11–14.
General growth mixture modelling identified two parental monitoring trajectories: (i) ‘stable’ class (84.9%) began with a high level of parental monitoring at age 11 that remained steady to age 14; (ii) ‘declining’ class (15.1%) began with a significantly lower level of parental monitoring at age 11 and experienced a significant to through age 14. The declining class had increased significantly unadjusted (OR = 1.91; 95% CI = 1.59, 2.23; P ≤ 0.001) and adjusted (aOR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.24, 1.99; P = 0.01) odds of problem gambling compared with non-gambling.
Low and/or declining parental monitoring of children between the ages of 11 and 14 is associated significantly with problem gambling when those children reach young adulthood.