SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

Keywords:

  • Australia;
  • Coccidulini;
  • Cucujoidea;
  • Erithionyx;
  • Rhyzobius;
  • Wioletta

Abstract

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Material and Methods
  5. Systematics
  6. Acknowledgements
  7. References

The members of endemic Australian ladybird genera Erithionyx and Wioletta are revised. Lectotypes are designated for Rhizobius elongatulus Crotch, R. subfusca Blackburn, R. lanosus Blackburn and Erithionyx albatus Lea. R. subfusca Blackburn is found to be a synonym of R. elongatulus Crotch (syn. n.). Wioletta ovata sp. n. is described from Northern Australia. The nomenclatural history, diagnoses and distribution data are provided for each species. Keys to the species of both genera are included.


Introduction

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Material and Methods
  5. Systematics
  6. Acknowledgements
  7. References

Erithionyx Blackburn and Wioletta Ślipiński are small and little known genera of the endemic Australian ladybird beetles belonging to the tribe Coccidulini. The adult beetles resemble better-known members of the genus Rhyzobius Stephens (1829), and the type species of both genera were originally described in that genus. Rhyzobius was described from Europe to accommodate hairy ladybirds with relatively long antennae and coarsely faceted eyes, and later placed in the tribe Coccidulini in contrast with Scymnini, which have relatively short antennae and finely facetted eyes (Mulsant 1850). The higher classification of ‘hairy coccinellids’ developed for taxa from the northern hemisphere was shown to be largely artificial once the southern taxa were added and the phylogenetic relationships were examined on a global scale using morphology and molecular markers (Ślipiński 2007; Giorgi et al. 2009; Seago et al. 2011). Consequently, Scymnini and Coccidulini were lumped together as unresolved branch of the phylogeny of Coccinellidae by Seago et al. (2011), and this concept is followed here pending more comprehensive phylogenetic research.

Mulsant (1850) and then Crotch (1874) described the first two Australian species in Rhyzobius in spite of obvious morphological differences from their European genotype. Since then, over 50 species (Korschefsky 1931) were added by T. Blackburn, A. Lea and J. Weise. Ślipiński (2007) revised the classification of the Australian Coccinellidae, catalogued all the available names and formally moved several Rhyzobius species to Rodatus Mulsant (see Tomaszewska & Ślipiński 2011), and moved two species (R. elongatulus Crotchand R. subfusca Blackburn) to a newly recognised genus Wioletta. He pointed out that Australian Rhyzobius was a composite and difficult to define group and noticed that Wioletta was somewhat intermediate between Rhyzobius and Rodatus, whereas Erithionyx was very close to Rhyzobius.

Blackburn (1892b) erected Erithionyx for a species he described a few months earlier from Toowoomba as R. lanosus (Blackburn 1892a). He was impressed by its dense ochraceous pubescence forming uniform pile, finer granulation of the eyes and hind tarsal claws appendiculate as compared with the bifid front and mid-tarsal claws. A second species in that genus was added by Lea (1902) from Gosford (NSW) and distinguished from E. lanosus by its ‘smaller size and white and less silky pubescence’.

Tomaszewska (2010) revised world species of Rhyzobius recognising 65 endemic Australian species, but she was not able to provide support for monophyly of the genus that seems to be diagnosed only by a suite of plesiomorphic character states. Worldwide study based on morphology and molecular markers is critically needed to address the generic limits of Rhyzobius and other vaguely defined genera of southern Coccidulini (e.g. Adoxellus Weise, Stenococcus Weise, etc.).

The aim of this project is to clarify the species-level taxonomy and nomenclature in two Australian genera of Coccidulini not previously treated on species level. Based on a relatively large amount of material assembled over the years, we were able to distinguish two species in each of the revised genera.

W. elongatula is distributed from Adelaide to southern Queensland and W. ovata sp. n. occurs in Northern Queensland, Northern Territory and Western Australia. Unlike Rhyzobius, Wioletta forms a very uniform group that can be diagnosed by its long oval body, the head entirely withdrawn into the prothorax, the terminal maxillary palpomere securiform and the prosternum in front of the coxa at least as long as coxal longitudinal diameter.

Erithionyx is extremely similar to Rhyzobius and may eventually be synonymised with that genus; however, the distinctly convex body, very densely setose dorsum, less coarsely faceted eyes and strongly elongate, narrow, vermiform spermatheca will distinguish it from the Australian contingent of Rhyzobius. Two known Erithionyx species are very similar but separated geographically, with E. lanosus Blackburn distributed in Southern and Central Queensland and E. albatus Lea in Northern New South Wales.

Material and Methods

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Material and Methods
  5. Systematics
  6. Acknowledgements
  7. References

Specimens examined were obtained from the following institutions:

  • ANIC, Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences, Canberra
  • CNC, Canadian National Insect Collection, Ottawa, Canada
  • MIZ, Museum and Institute of Zoology, PAS, Warsaw
  • BMNH, The Natural History Museum, London
  • NAQS, Northern Australia Quarantine Strategy, Mareeba
  • SAM, South Australian Museum, Adelaide
  • QDPIM, Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Mareeba
  • QMB, Queensland Museum, Brisbane
  • UMZC, University Museum of Zoology Cambridge, Cambridge
  • UQIC, University of Queensland Insect Collection (now in QMB)

The measurements were made using a micrometre attached to a dissecting microscope as follows: body length (BL), from apical margin of clypeus to apex of elytra; body height (BH), at highest point of elytra; pronotal length (PL), from the middle of anterior margin to margin of basal foramen; pronotal width (PW) at widest part; elytral length (EL) along suture, including scutellum; elytral width (EW) across both elytra at widest part. Male and female genitalia were dissected, cleaned in a 10% solution of KOH and subsequently transferred to glycerol and drawn using a camera lucida attached to Olympus (SZH10) dissecting microscope. After examination, the genitalia were transferred to microvials and pinned beneath the specimen. Photographic images were produced using a digital camera and enhanced using AUTO MONTAGE software in the laboratory of the MIZ. The final plates were prepared using Adobe Photoshop CS®. SEM photographs were made using a HITACHI S-3400N machine in the electron microscopy laboratory of the MIZ.

The distribution maps were produced from BioLink version 2.0 (CSIRO Entomology, http://www.biolink.csiro.au).

The beetle morphology follows Lawrence et al. (2011) including use of Roman numerals for the body segments; specific terminology used in Coccinellidae follows Ślipiński (2007) and Ślipiński and Tomaszewska (2010).

Lectotypes of R. elongatulus Crotch, R. subfusca Blackburn, R. lanosus Blackburn and E. albatus Lea were designated to stabilise the usage of the names of very closely related species.

Systematics

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Material and Methods
  5. Systematics
  6. Acknowledgements
  7. References

Erithionyx Blackburn

Erithionyx Blackburn 1892b: 259. Type species, by original designation, R. lanosus Blackburn 1892a. – Ślipiński 2007: 131–132 (description of adult).

Description

Length 3.25–4.40 mm. Body 1.2–1.3 times as long as wide, widely oval; convex to highly convex, shiny. Winged. Head (Figs 4,10,18) slightly withdrawn into prothorax; 0.7–0.8 times as long as wide, including eyes; ventral antennal grooves arcuate, bent along outer margin of eye. Eyes dorsally less than 0.5 times length of head capsule, with inner orbits arcuate; ocular canthus extending weakly into eye; interocular distance 0.4–0.5 times as wide as head across eyes; interfacetal setae distinct. Antenna (Figs 4,8,19) about 1.0–1.2 times as long as head capsule, 11-segmented; scape two times as long as pedicel; antennomere three less than two times longer than pedicel, and at least two times longer than four; antennomeres four to eight weakly longer than wide. Antennal club 3-segmented with two subterminal segments asymmetrical; terminal antennomere rounded at apex. Anterior clypeal margin emarginate with median area membranous. Labrum rounded at apex. Maxillary cardo (Figs 8,19) transverse with outer angle reaching outside of mouth cavity, terminal palpomere, widened apically. Mentum transverse, 1.8–2.1 times wider than long; anterior margin arcuate; ventral surface with horseshoe-like impression; prementum 1.0–1.2 times as long as wide; ligula parallel-sided; labial palps separated by a distance about equal to width of palpiger; apical palpomere as long and as wide as penultimate one; submentum indistinct.

Pronotum (Figs 3,10) with anterior angles rounded, not produced anteriorly, with regular border; anterior and hind margin without borders; lateral carina complete. Prothoracic hypomeron (Figs 4,20) with concavity perpendicular to notosternal suture; notosternal suture distinct, simple; prosternal process (Figs 5,20) about 0.5–0.6 times coxal width, its surface with complete, separate carinae; prosternum in front of coxa about 0.4 times coxal length at the same position; procoxal cavity transverse, with bordering line close to cavity.

Anterior edge of mesoventrite (Figs 5,20) with complete raised border; mesoventral process at median length of coxa about as wide as corresponding coxal diameter. Mesometaventral suture obscured; junction arcuate or angulate posteriorly, without internal knob. Scutellum (Fig. 3) triangular, weakly transverse; surface punctate and setose. Elytra (Figs 1–3) with lateral margins very narrow but entirely visible from above; surface with smaller and larger punctures (Fig. 12); epipleuron incomplete apically only (Figs 11,18), inner margin with border line fading before base of elytron. Metaventrite with complete discrimen; metaventral postcoxal lines (Figs 6,20) distinctly separated at middle, laterally complete and weakly arcuate; metanepisternum with external process interlocking with fovea on elytron; metepimeron distinct; metendosternite stalk nearly as long as wide; tendons separated by slightly less than width of stalk and placed on laminae.

figure

Figure 1,2. Habitus: (1) Erithionyx lanosus Blackburn; (2) Erithionyx albatus Lea.

Download figure to PowerPoint

figure

Figure 3–12. Erithionyx lanosus: (3) dorsal view; (4) ventral view; (5) prosternum; (6) meso and metathorax, ventral; (7) tarsal claws, female; (8) head, ventral; (9) habitus, lateral view; (10) head and pronotum, anterodorsal view; (11) abdomen, male; (12) elytral punctation.

Download figure to PowerPoint

Legs with trochanters angulate, produced (Figs 4,18); mid and hind tibia with single spur; protarsal and mid-tarsal claws in male appendiculate (Figs 22,23); hind tarsal claws in male with quadrate basal tooth (Fig. 21); claws in female with quadrate, basal tooth (Fig. 7).

Abdomen (Fig. 11) with five ventrites in both sexes; ventrite 1 in mid-length at least as long as three following ventrites combined; abdominal postcoxal lines separate medially, recurved and complete, deep, posteriorly reach distinctly more than half-length of ventrite 1; ventrite 5 in female with hind margin arcuate; ventrite 5 in male broadly rounded with only median part of hind margin somewhat narrowly truncate. Male genital segment (Fig. 16) with central part of sternite IX membranous; apodeme of male sternum IX with its apex somewhat widened, and base of spiculum weakly widened.

figure

Figure 13–17. Erithionyx lanosus: (13) penis, ventral; (14) apex of penis; (15) tegmen, ventral; (16) male genital segment, ventral; (17) female genitalia.

Download figure to PowerPoint

Male genitalia (Figs 13–15,24–26). Parameres articulated with phallobase, well-developed, simple and separated, as long as penis guide with apices densely setose; penis guide with lateral sides symmetrical throughout; tegminal strut simple; penis base with outer arm distinctly less developed than inner arm.

Female genitalia (Figs 17,27). Proctiger (T10) distinct, plate at least partly sclerotised; coxites elongate, triangular; styli strongly reduced; infundibulum in a form of lightly sclerotised but clearly delimited piece of bursa; sperm duct short, simple, uniform in diameter; spermatheca narrow and strongly elongate, vermiform, without clear nodulus and ramus, spermathecal accessory gland elongate, adjacent to sperm duct.

Distribution

Endemic to Australia with the species distributed from the central coast of New South Wales to Northern Queensland (Fig. 61).

Key to the species of Erithionyx

  • Dorsum deep black usually with dense yellowish hair (Fig. 1); width of prosternal process less than two times length of prosternum in front of coxa; Queensland   E. lanosus
  • Dorsum brown often with whitish hair (Fig. 2); width of prosternal process distinctly more than two times length of prosternum in front of coxa; New South Wales   E. albatus

E. lanosus (Blackburn) (Figs 1,3–17,61)

R. lanosus Blackburn 1892a: 71. Type locality: Queensland, Toowoomba.

E. lanosus: Blackburn 1892b: 259.

Types

Lectotype, male, ‘Erithionyx lanosus Blackburn/Blackburn coll. 1910-236/T 4147 Qu/Type’ (BMNH, here designated).

Other specimens examined

Queensland. SE Q, Tambourine Mts, 11-17.iv.1935, R.E. Turner, B.M. 1935-240 (1: BMNH); same but 19-26.iv.1935 (2: BMNH); same but 1-9.v.1935 (1: BMNH); same but 2-9.iv.1935 (1: NHM); same but 2.xi.80, R.D. Pope, rainforest edge (2: BMNH); Mt. Tambourine, S.E.Q., 18.x.1978, K.J. Houston, edge rainforest (1: QDPIM); same place, but 14.iii.1979, K.J. Houston, edge rainforest (1: QDPIM; 1: MIZ); Joalah N.P., Mt. Tamborine, 500 m, 22.vi-6.vii.1978, S. and J. Peck, rainforest, Malaise trap, wet sclerophyll, stream edge (1: CNC); Eritionyx lanosus Bl., Queensland, 10448 (1: SAM); Gympie (1: SAM); 28.11S 153.23E, Gwinganna, 6 km., SW by W Tallebudgera, 18-23.iv.1994, D. Rentz, M. Upton and W. Lee, Malaise trap (1; ANIC; 1: MIZ); Brisbane, v-vii.1977, K. Houston (1: QDPIM).

Diagnosis

E. lanosus is very similar to E. albatus, and male and female genitalia of both species appear to be identical. E. lanosus differs from E. albatus in having deeply black, more convex dorsum, and a shorter body with the elytra at most as long as broad. Moreover, E. lanosus has the width of the prosternal process about two times greater than the length of the prosternum in front of procoxae, and the mentum at least two times broader than long.

Description

Length 3.50–4.40 mm; BL/EW = 1.20–1.24; PL/PW = 0.48–0.50; EL/EW = 0.99–1.00; EL/PL = 3.00–3.10; EW/PW = 1.48–1.50; BL/BH = 2.05–2.10.

Body (Figs 1,3,4,9) broadly oval, widest somewhat beyond half-length of elytra; dorsal surfaces black; ventral surfaces black to brownish black, abdomen orange, tarsi, mouthparts and antennae brown; dorsum covered with dense, moderately long, yellowish hairs.

Head (Figs 8,10) with mentum 2.1–2.3 times as wide as long; prementum 1.2–1.3 times wider than long; ventral surface of mentum with transverse horseshoe-like impression.

Pronotal punctures 0.5–1.5 diameters apart (Fig. 10); prosternal process width (Fig. 5) 0.60–0.63 times coxal width and 2.25 times greater than length of prosternum in front of coxa; prosternum in front of coxa 0.43–0.45 times coxal length at the same position.

Mesoventral process at median length of coxa about 1.10–1.15 times as wide as corresponding coxal diameter. Elytra (Fig. 1) widest slightly beyond half-length; surface densely punctate with punctures 1.0–2.0 diameters apart (Figs 3,9).

Male and female genitalia as in Figures 13–17.

Distribution

Queensland (Fig. 61).

E. albatus Lea (Figs 2,18–27,61)

figure

Figure 18–23. Erithionyx albatus Lea: (18) ventral view; (19) head, ventral; (20) prothorax, mesothorax and metathorax, ventral; (21) hind tarsal claws, male; (22) fore tarsal claws, male; (23) mid-tarsal claws, male.

Download figure to PowerPoint

figure

Figure 24–27. Erithionyx albatus Lea: (24) penis, ventral; (25) apex of penis; (26) tegmen, ventral; (27) female genitalia.

Download figure to PowerPoint

E. albatus Lea 1902: 507. Type locality: New South Wales, Gosford.

Types

Lectotype, male, ‘albatus, Lea Type, Gosford/10447, Erithionyx albatus Lea, N. S. Wales, Type/Erithionyx albatus/S.A. Museum specimen’ (SAM, here designated).

Other specimens examined

New South Wales. Tuglo Res., 151.16E 32.14S, 30.xi-1.xii.80, R.D. Pope, B.M.1981-447, rainforest (13: BMNH); 30.21S 152.47E, Dorrigo NP, Never picnic site, 6.iv.1993, C. Reid, beating rainforest vegetation (1: ANIC); 3 km N Lansdowne via Taree, 25.ix.1983, G. Williams, wet-dry sclerophyll forest (1: MIZ); approx. 3 km N. Lansdowne via Taree, 18.x.1990, G and T. Williams, on Cryptocarya microneura blossom (1: ANIC); 32.08S 151.27E, Allyn River, Chichester S.F., 10-11.xi.1981, T. Weir and A. Calder (1: ANIC).

Diagnosis

E. albatus strongly resembles E. lanosus, but can be distinguished from that species by less convex and more elongate body with elytra at least slightly longer than wide, and the elytra brownish black instead of deeply black. Moreover, the width of prosternal process in E. albatus is more than two times greater than the length of the prosternum in front of coxa.

Description

Length 3.25–4.20 mm; BL/EW = 1.30–1.32; PL/PW = 0.48–0.51; EL/EW = 1.03–1.07; EL/PL = 3.05–3.20; EW/PW = 1.43–1.48; BL/BH = 2.11–2.18.

Body (Figs 2,18) oval, widest at half-length of elytra; dorsal surfaces blackish with elytra brownish black, angles of pronotum often very narrowly pale orange; ventral surfaces dark brown, with abdomen orange, tarsi, mouthparts and antennae light brown; dorsum covered with dense, moderately long, whitish hairs.

Head (Fig. 19) with mentum 1.8–1.9 times as wide as long; prementum 1.0–1.1 times broader than long; ventral surface of mentum with horseshoe-like impression about 0.95–1.00 times as long as wide.

Pronotal disc with punctures 1.0–1.5 diameters apart; prosternal process width (Fig. 20) 0.58–0.60 times coxal width and 2.15 times prosternum length in front of coxa; prosternum in front of coxa about 0.40–0.42 times coxal length at same position.

Mesoventral process at median length of coxa as wide as corresponding coxal diameter (Fig. 20). Elytra (Fig. 2) widest at mid-length; surface densely punctate with punctures 0.5–2.0 diameters apart.

Male and female genitalia as in Figures 24–27.

Distribution

New South Wales (Fig. 61).

Wioletta Ślipiński

Wioletta Ślipiński 2007: 123. Type species, by original designation, R. elongatulus Crotch 1874.

Description

Length 2.25–4.90 mm. Body 1.42–1.70 times as long as wide; broadly oval to long oval; moderately to highly convex, shiny. Winged. Head (Figs 32,37,49,57) entirely withdrawn into prothorax; about as long as wide, including eyes; ventral antennal grooves arcuate, bent towards outer margin of eye. Eyes dorsally more than 0.5 times length of head capsule, with inner orbits convergent, closer near vertex than anteriorly; not emarginate; interocular distance 0.30–0.36 times as wide as head across eyes; interfacetal setae absent or indistinct. Antenna (Figs 37,51) about as long as head capsule, 11-segmented; scape 1.75–2.00 times as long as pedicel; pedicel narrower than scape, 1.25–1.35 times as long as wide; antennomere 3 less than two times longer than pedicel, and at least two times longer than antennomere 4; antennomeres 4 and 5 at most quadrate; antennomeres 6–8 scarcely longer than wide. Antennal club 3-segmented, with two subterminal segments asymmetrical; terminal antennomere apically truncate. Anterior clypeal margin straight. Labrum truncate at apex. Maxillary cardo (Figs 37,49) transverse with outer angle reaching outside of mouth cavity, terminal palpomere, widened apically. Mentum transverse, less than two times broader than long; anterior margin weakly arcuate; ventral surface with horseshoe-like impression; prementum about as long as wide; ligula parallel-sided; labial palps separated by a distance about equal to width of palpiger; apical palpomere as long and as wide as penultimate one; submentum indistinct.

Pronotum (Figs 32,33,46,57) with anterior angles rounded, not produced anteriorly, with regular border; with or without anterolateral groove; anterior and hind margin without border; lateral margin with entire border. Prothoracic hypomeron (Figs 35,50) with groove perpendicular to notosternal suture; notosternal suture distinct, simple; prosternal process (Figs 35,50) about 0.5 times as wide as greatest coxal diameter, its surface with short separate carinae not extending forward beyond prosternal process; prosternum in front of coxa at least as long as coxal length at same position; procoxal cavity transverse, without visible bordering line.

Anterior edge of mesoventrite (Figs 35,50) with complete raised border; mesoventral process at median length of coxa at least as wide as corresponding coxal diameter; mesometaventral suture obscure; junction arcuate or angulate posteriorly, without internal knob. Scutellum (Figs 30,46) triangular, about as long as wide; surface punctate and setose. Elytra (Figs 28–30,47) with lateral margins very narrow but entirely visible from above; surface with punctures of two different sizes (Figs 40,54), elytral epipleuron incomplete apically only (Figs 38,48,56), inner margin with borderline fading before base of elytron. Metaventrite with complete discrimen; metaventral postcoxal lines (Figs 35,48) distinctly separated at middle, laterally complete and straight, or weakly arcuate; metanepisternum with external process interlocking with fovea on elytron; metepimeron indistinct; metendosternite stalk nearly as long as wide; tendons separated by about width of stalk and placed on laminae.

figure

Figure 28,29. Habitus: (28) Wioletta elongatula (Crotch); (29) Wioletta ovata n. sp.

Download figure to PowerPoint

figure

Figure 30–40. Wioletta elongatula (Crotch): (30) dorsal view; (31) ventral view; (32) pronotum; (33) head and pronotum, anterodorsal; (34) mid-tibial spur; (35) prothorax, mesothorax and metathorax, ventral; (36) habitus, lateral view; (37) head, ventral; (38) abdomen, female; (39) tarsal claws, female; (40) elytral punctation.

Download figure to PowerPoint

Legs with trochanters angulate and produced (Figs 31,48); mid and hind tibia each with single spur (Fig. 34); protarsal and mid-tarsal claws in male appendiculate (Fig. 55); hind tarsal claws in male with weak quadrate basal tooth (Fig. 53); claws in female with small quadrate, basal tooth (Fig. 39).

Abdomen (Figs 38,56) with five ventrites in both sexes; ventrite 1 in mid-line longer than three following ventrites combined; abdominal postcoxal lines separate medially, recurved and complete, deep, posteriorly reaching more than half-length of ventrite 1; ventrite 5 in female with hind margin arcuate; ventrite 5 in male with hind margin rounded, only with median part somewhat narrowly truncate. Male genital segment (Fig. 44) with central part of sternite IX membranous; apodeme of male sternum IX with its apex somewhat widened, and base of spiculum weakly widened.

figure

Figure 41–45. Wioletta elongatula (Crotch): (41) female genitalia; (42) penis, ventral; (43) apex of penis; (44) male genital segment, ventral; (45) tegmen, ventral.

Download figure to PowerPoint

Male genitalia (Figs 42–45,59,60). Parameres articulated with phallobase, well-developed, simple and separated, about as long as penis guide, with apices densely setose; penis guide with lateral sides symmetrical throughout; tegminal strut simple; penis base with inner arm well developed and outer arm obsolete.

Female genitalia (Figs 41,58). Proctiger (T10) distinct, with plate at least partly sclerotised; styli strongly reduced; infundibulum absent; sperm duct very short, simple, uniform in diameter; spermatheca without clear nodulus and ramus, spermathecal accessory gland adjacent to sperm duct.

Distribution

Endemic to Australia, distributed along eastern and northern coasts from South Australia, Victoria, Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales to northern Queensland, and to Northern Territory and Western Australia (Fig. 62).

Key to the species of Wioletta

  • Body (Fig. 28) larger, 1.6–1.7 times longer than wide, wider beyond half-length of elytra; pronotum without anterolateral groove (Fig. 33); mesoventral process about as wide as mesocoxal diameter at same position; South Australia, Victoria, Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, Southern Queensland      W. elongatula
  • Body (Fig. 29) smaller, 1.42–1.49 times longer than wide, wider at half-length of elytra; pronotum with anterolateral groove (Fig. 57); mesoventral process wider than mesocoxal diameter at same position; Northern Queensland, Northern Territory, Western Australia   W. ovata
figure

Figure 46–57. Wioletta ovata n. sp.: (46) pronotum, dorsal view; (47) habitus, dorsal view; (48) ventral view; (49) head, ventral; (50) prothorax and mesothorax, ventral; (51) antenna; (52) habitus, lateral view; (53) hind tarsal claws, male; (54) elytral punctuation; (55) mid-tarsal claws, male; (56) abdomen, male; (57) head and pronotum, anterodorsal.

Download figure to PowerPoint

W. elongatula (Crotch) (Figs 28,30–45,62)

R. elongatulus Crotch 1874: 298. Type locality: Queensland.

W. elongatula: Ślipiński 2007: 124.

R. subfusca Blackburn 1889: 205. Type locality: South Australia, Adelaide. syn. n.

W. subfusca: Ślipiński 2007: 124.

Types

Lectotype of R. elongatulus, ‘Queensl. Jans./B/Rhyzobius elongatulus Cr., R.D. Pope det. 1983’ (UMZC, here designated); see remarks later. Lectotype female of R. subfusca, ‘Type/1886, SA, T/Rhizobius subfuscus, Blackb./Blackburn coll. 1910-236’ (BMNH, here designated).

Other specimens examined

Victoria. Cam River, 28.i.1967, G. Monteith (1: UQIC). Australian Capital Territory. 35.16S 149.06E, Black Mtn, light trap, 20.xi.1993, J.F. Lawrence (1: ANIC); Hughes, Canberra, 28.xii.1980, Eucalyptus sp., R.D. Pope, BM. 1981-447, R. elongatulus Crotch, det. R.G. Booth, 1975, comp. to Syntypes in UCCC (1: BMNH); Canberra, 10-12.i.1958, coll. W.J.M. Vestjens (1: ANIC); Black Mtn. Reserve, 4.xii.1970, light trap, S. Misko (1: MIZ); same but 15.x.1965, M. Upton (1: ANIC); Deakin, Canberra, 3.i.81, Eucalyptus sp. (2: BMNH). New South Wales. Depot Beach, 16 km NE of Batemans Bay, 17.xi.1970, I.F.B. Common (1: ANIC); 35.30S 150.24E, Bawley Point, 8.iii.1997, D.C.F. Rentz and K. McCarron coll. (1: ANIC); Agnes Banks, 25.ix.1965, D.A. Doolan, (1: ANIC); 7 Mile Beach, 13.vi.1959, C.E. Chadwick, under bark, Eucalyptus sp. (1: MIZ).

Diagnosis

W. elongatula is very similar to W. ovata n. sp. but can be distinguished from that species by larger, more elongated and less convex body, the mesoventral process at most as wide as coxal diameter, the pronotum without anterolateral groove and the mentum with horseshoe-like impression smaller, with its anterior edge more distant from anterior margin of the mentum than in W. ovata.

Description

Length 3.75–4.90 mm; BL/EW = 1.60–1.70; PL/PW = 0.66–0.70; EL/EW = 1.23–1.27; EL/PL = 2.64–2.75; EW/PW = 1.45–1.47; BL/BH = 2.65.

Body (Figs 28,30,31,36) elongated oval, widest beyond half-length of elytra; dorsal surfaces black with angles of pronotum most often narrowly pale orange; ventral surfaces blackish brown, dark brown to chestnut brown, tarsi, mouthparts and antennae lighter; body covered with dense, moderately long hairs.

Head (Figs 33,37) about 0.9 times as long as wide; interocular distance 0.35–0.36 times as wide as head across eyes. Antenna with scape two times as long as pedicel; pedicel about 0.55 times as long as antennomere 3; antennomere 3 about three times longer than antennomere 4; antennomere 4 transverse; antennomeres 5–8 quadrate to weakly elongate; terminal antennomere elongate (Fig. 37). Horseshoe-like impression large, extending forward to about 0.73 length of mentum (Fig. 37).

Pronotum with punctures 1.0–2.0 diameters apart; anterolateral groove absent (Figs 32,33); width of prosternal process (Fig. 35) 0.5 times greatest coxal and 0.55 times prosternum length in front of coxa; prosternum in front of coxa 1.2 times as long as coxal length at same position.

Mesoventral process at median length of coxa as wide as corresponding coxal diameter (Fig. 36); mesometaventral junction arcuate posteriorly. Scutellum (Fig. 30) triangular, scarcely longer than wide. Elytra (Figs 28,30) widest beyond half-length; surface densely punctate with punctures 0.5–1.5 diameters apart.

Male and female genitalia as in Figures 41–45.

Distribution

South Australia, Victoria, Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, Southern Queensland (Fig. 62).

Remarks

Among the specimens borrowed from the UMZC, there were three items associated with the name R. elongatula in the Crotch Collection: (1) a set of labels on a pin ‘type/B/Queensl. J/type, elongatula’ and small mounting card without the specimen, (2) a mounting card with two glued specimens and some beetle fragments with a handwritten label ‘found loose in this draw mounted with ‘Gum Tragacanth’ [one specimen of these two belongs to R. elongatulus], and (3) a single specimen bearing labels ‘Queensl. Jans./B/Rhyzobius elongatulus Cr., R.D. Pope det. 1983’. The sets (1) and (3) match the original description and are here regarded as syntypes, and with the specimen from the set (1) missing, we designate the specimen from the set (3) as the lectotype. We agree with Gordon (1987) that it is impossible to ascertain if the specimens from the set (2) were part of the type series.

W. ovata sp. n. (Figs 29,46–60,62)

figure

Figure 58–60. Wioletta ovata n. sp.: (58) female genitalia; (59) penis, ventral; (60) tegmen, ventral.

Download figure to PowerPoint

figure

Figure 61,62. Distribution of the species of Erithionyx (61) and Wioletta (62) in Australia. (61) (image) E. lanosus; (image) E. albatus. (62) (image) W. elongatula; (image) W. ovata.

Download figure to PowerPoint

Types

Holotype, male, ‘Tolga, N. Qld, 22.x.1985, J.D. Brown, light trap’ (QMB).

Paratypes: Queensland. Tolga, N. Qld, 22.x.1985, J.D. Brown, light trap (1: MIZ; 1: ANIC); same but 13-20.xi.1985 (1: QPIM); Moreton Telegraph Station, Cape York Peninsula, 30.vii.1998, J.F. Grimshaw, at light (1: NAQS); 12.40S 142.40E, Batavia Downs Hmsd, 17-23.vi.1992, T. Weir, at light (1: ANIC); n. Qld, 7 km NE of Tolga, 14.i.1987, Storey and De Faveri, light trap (1: QPIM); same but 30.i.1987 (1: QPIM); same but vi.1987 (1: QPIM); Pinnarendi Stn, 60 km W of Mt. Garnet, 7.ii.1989, D. Heiner (1: QPIM); 13.33S 143.03E, Archer River, 28.vii.1992, at light, P. Zborowski and E.S Nielsen (1: MIZ); Station Creek, c. 17 km N of Mt. Molloy, 2.ii.1970, at light, J.G. Brooks (1: ANIC); Cardwell, RA. NQ, 9/67, GM, J.G. Brooks Bequest, 1976 (1: ANIC); 22.50S 150.40E, Pistol Cap, Byfield, Q, 10.i.1970, dry sclerophyll, at light, Britton, Holloway, Misko (1: ANIC); c. 9 km. W of Paluma, 4-13.xii.1973, at light, J.G. Brooks (1: ANIC); 15.17S 145.10E, 5 km W by N of Rounded Hill, 7.x.1980, t. Weir (1: ANIC); 15.16S 144.59E, 14 km W by N of Hope Vale Mission, 8-10.x.1980, T. Weir (1: ANIC; 1: MIZ); 15.14S 145.07E, 7 km N of Hope Vale Mission, 4.x.1980, T. Weir (1: ANIC); 15.04S 145.07E, Mt. Webb Nat. Pk. 28-30.ix.1980, T. Weir, at light (1: ANIC); 15.03S 145.09E, 3 km NE of Mt. Webb, 1-3.x.1980, T. Weir, pyrethrum spray (1: ANIC). Northern Territory. 15.58S 136.21E, 12 km NNE of Borroloola, NT, 1.xi.1975, M.S. Upton (1; ANIC). Western Australia. 14.49S 126.49E, Carson Escarpments, WA, 9-15.vii.1975, I.F.B. Common and M.S. Upton (1: ANIC; 1: MIZ).

Diagnosis

W. ovata is very similar to W. elongatula; however, it can be separated from that species in having smaller, more oval, more convex body that is widest near half-length of the elytra. The mesoventral process in W. ovata is broader than mesocoxal diameter at the same position, the pronotum has a distinct anterolateral groove and the horseshoe-like impression on mentum is closer to the anterior margin of the mentum than in W. elongatula.

Description

Length 2.25–3.40 mm; BL/EW = 1.42–1.49; PL/PW = 0.57–0.61; EL/EW = 1.11–1.17; EL/PL = 2.72–2.90; EW/PW = 1.40–1.52; BL/BH = 2.25–2.40.

Body (Figs 29,47,52) elongate oval, widest near half-length of elytra; dorsal surfaces black with angles of pronotum most often narrowly orange; ventral surfaces brown, sometimes with tarsi, mouthparts and antennae lighter; covered with dense, moderately long hairs.

Head about as long as wide; interocular distance 0.30–0.33 times as wide as head across eyes. Antenna (Fig. 51) with scape 1.75 times as long as pedicel; pedicel as long as antennomere 3; antennomere 3 about two times longer than antennomere 4; antennomere 4 transverse; antennomeres 5–8 quadrate; terminal antennomere about as long as wide. Ventral surface of mentum with horseshoe-like impression large, extending forward to about 0.80 length of mentum (Fig. 49).

Pronotum with punctures 1.0–2.0 diameters apart; anterolateral groove present (Figs 46,57); width of prosternal process (Fig. 50) 0.45–0.50 times greatest coxal diameter and 0.68–0.74 times length of prosternum in front of coxa; prosternum in front of coxa as long as coxal length in the same position.

Mesoventral process at median length of coxa 1.1–1.2 times as broad as corresponding coxal diameter (Fig. 50); mesometaventral junction angulate posteriorly. Scutellum (Figs 46,57) triangular, as long as wide. Elytra (Figs 47,54) widest in half-length; surface with punctures 1.0–2.0 diameters apart.

Male and female genitalia as in Figures 58–60.

Distribution

Northern Queensland and coastal areas of Northern Territory and Western Australia (Fig. 62).

Acknowledgements

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Material and Methods
  5. Systematics
  6. Acknowledgements
  7. References

We thank very much Roger Booth (BMNH), Peter Hudson (SAM), Patrice Bouchard (CNC), Judy Grimshaw (NAQS), the late Ross Storey (QPIM), Geoff Monteith (QMB, UQIC) and William Foster (UMZC) for the loan of types, and other specimens used in this study. We sincerely thank Jan Boratyński (MIZ) for help with SEM photography. Research on this project was supported by ABRS grant (No 207-29) to W. Tomaszewska for research on Australian Coccinellidae.

References

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Material and Methods
  5. Systematics
  6. Acknowledgements
  7. References
  • Blackburn T. 1889. Further notes on Australian Coleoptera, with descriptions of new genera and species. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 11, 175214.
  • Blackburn T. 1892a. Further notes on Australian Coleoptera, with descriptions of new genera and species. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 15, 2073.
  • Blackburn T. 1892b. Further notes on Australian Coleoptera, with descriptions of new genera and species. XII. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 15, 207261.
  • Crotch GR. 1874. A Revision of the Coleopterous Family Coccinellidae. E.W. Janson, London, UK.
  • Giorgi AG, Vandenberg NJ, McHugh JV et al. 2009. The evolution of food preferences in Coccinellidae. Biological Control 51, 215231.
  • Gordon RD. 1987. A catalogue of the Crotch collection of Coccinellidae (Coleoptera). Occasional Papers on Systematic Entomology 3, 146.
  • Korschefsky R. 1931. Pars 118: Coccinellidae. I. In: Coleopterorum Catalogus (eds W Junk & S Schenkling ), pp. 1224. W. Junk, Berlin, Germany.
  • Lawrence JF, Ślipiński SA, Seago AE, Thayer MK, Newton AF & Marvaldi AE. 2011. Phylogeny of the Coleoptera based on morphological characters of adults and larvae. Annales Zoologici 61, 1217.
  • Lea AM. 1902. Descriptions of new species of Australian Coleoptera. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 1901, 481513.
  • Mulsant ME. 1850. Species des Coléoptères Trimères Sécuripalpes. Annales des Sciencies Physiques et Naturelles, d'Agriculture et d'Industrie, publiées par la Société nationale d'Agriculture, etc., de Lyon, Deuxième Série 2, 11104.
  • Seago AE, Giorgi JA, Li J & Ślipiński A. 2011. Revision of Coccinellidae: classification and evolution of ladybirds based on simultaneous analysis of morphological and molecular evidence. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 60, 137151.
  • Ślipiński A. 2007. Australian Ladybird Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Their Biology and Classification. ABRS, Canberra, Australia.
  • Ślipiński A & Tomaszewska W. 2010. Coccinellidae Latreille, 1802. In: Handbook of Zoology, Vol. 2, Coleoptera (eds RAB Leschen , RG Beutel & JF Lawrence ), pp. 454472. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin, Germany/New York, USA.
  • Stephens JF. 1829. A Systematic Catalogue of British Insects: Being an Attempt to Arrange All the Hitherto Discovered Indigenous Insects in Accordance with Their Natural Affinities. Containing Also the References to Every English Writer on Entomology, and to the Principal Foreign Authors. With All the Published British Genera to the Present Time. Part 1. Baldwin and Cradock, London, UK.
  • Tomaszewska W. 2010. Rhyzobius Stephens 1829 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae), a Revision of the World Species. Fauna Mundi, Vol. 2, MIZ PAS, Warszawa.
  • Tomaszewska W & Ślipiński A. 2011. Revision of the genus Rodatus Mulsant, 1850 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Coccidulini). Annales Zoologici 61, 657684.