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Description of the immature stages and gall morphology, and molecular characterisation of Procontarinia robusta, a gall midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) damaging leaves of mango Mangifera indica L. (Anarcadiaceae) in southern Asia



Procontarinia robusta Li, Bu & Zhang (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) induces distinctive brown conical galls on the upper side of mango leaves. Here, we describe the larva and pupa and illustrate the gall of P. robusta collected at type locality in China and use gall morphology to identify galls reported previously from India and Indonesia. Analyses of the cytochrome oxidase unit I mitochondrial gene segment showed significant differences between P. robusta and two other pests of mango, P. mangicola (Shi) and P. pustulata Kolesik, and confirmed the identification of P. robusta specimens from East Timor. A summary of the biology of P. robusta is provided.