The present study focused on the sexual dimorphism of yellow baboon (Papio cynocephalus) to clarify its relationship with social behaviour. The degree of sexual dimorphism in the endocranial volume is the lowest among the investigated measurements. Among the facial measurements, the degree value of sexual dimorphism was the maximum (38.4%) for palate length and the minimum for palate breadth at the upper second molar (M2) (16.8%). Reduced major axis (RMA) regression analysis indicated that most positive allometry in relation to body mass was barely shown in the endocranial volume, palate length, palate breadth at M2 and mandibular ramal width. On the other hand, most negative allometry in relation to body mass was barely indicated in the bizygomatic breadth, skull length, humeral length and femoral length. The plate breadth at M2 in males was smaller than that in females in equivalent to body mass. The results of the present study suggest that more males have longer pointed muzzles than females, which is considered to create an impressive view of large canine teeth. This contributes to display among males and agonistic encounters rather than to necessity of increased facial size due to larger body size or dietary influences.