• 1
    Oh B, Butow P, Mullan B et al. The use and perceived benefits resulting from the use of complementary and alternative medicine by cancer patients in Australia. Asia Pac J Clin Oncol 2010; 6: 342349.
  • 2
    Correa-Velez I, Clavarino A, Eastwood H. Surviving, relieving, repairing, and boosting up: reasons for using complementary/alternative medicine among patients with advanced cancer: a thematic analysis. J Palliat Med 2005; 8: 953961.
  • 3
    Engdal S, Steinsbekk A, Klepp O, Nilsen OG. Herbal use among cancer patients during palliative or curative chemotherapy treatment in Norway. Support Care Cancer 2008; 16: 763769.
  • 4
    Zollman C, Vickers A. ABC of complementary medicine. Complementary medicine and the patient. BMJ 1999; 319: 14861489.
  • 5
    Werneke U, Earl J, Seydel C, Horn O, Crichton P, Fannon D. Potential health risks of complementary alternative medicines in cancer patients. Br J Cancer 2004; 90: 408413.
  • 6
    Pedersen CG, Christensen S, Jensen AB, Zachariae R. Prevalence, socio-demographic and clinical predictors of post-diagnostic utilisation of different types of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in a nationwide cohort of Danish women treated for primary breast cancer. Eur J Cancer 2009; 45: 31723181.
  • 7
    Sparreboom A, Cox MC, Acharya MR, Figg WD. Herbal remedies in the United States: potential adverse interactions with anticancer agents. J Clin Oncol 2004; 22: 24892503.
  • 8
    Balneaves LG, Weeks L, Seely D. Patient decision-making about complementary and alternative medicine in cancer management: context and process. Curr Oncol 2008; 15 (Suppl. 2): s94s100.
  • 9
    Tascilar M, de Jong FA, Verweij J, Mathijssen RH. Complementary and alternative medicine during cancer treatment: beyond innocence. Oncologist 2006; 11: 732741.
  • 10
    Meijerman I, Beijnen JH, Schellens JH. Herb-drug interactions in oncology: focus on mechanisms of induction. Oncologist 2006; 11: 742752.
  • 11
    Boon HS, Olatunde F, Zick SM. Trends in complementary/alternative medicine use by breast cancer survivors: comparing survey data from 1998 and 2005. BMC Womens Health 2007; 7: 4.
  • 12
    Vapiwala N, Mick R, Hampshire MK, Metz JM, DeNittis AS. Patient initiation of complementary and alternative medical therapies (CAM) following cancer diagnosis. Cancer J 2006; 12: 467474.
  • 13
    Hardy ML. Dietary supplement use in cancer care: help or harm. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 2008; 22: 581617.
  • 14
    Eisenberg DM, Kessler RC, Van Rompay MI et al. Perceptions about complementary therapies relative to conventional therapies among adults who use both: results from a national survey. Ann Intern Med 2001; 135: 344351.
  • 15
    Bishop FL, Lewith GT. Who uses CAM? A narrative review of demographic characteristics and health factors associated with CAM use. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2010; 7: 1128.
  • 16
    Stratton TD, McGivern-Snofsky JL. Toward a sociological understanding of complementary and alternative medicine use. J Altern Complement Med 2008; 14: 777783.
  • 17
    Hann D, Allen S, Ciambrone D, Shah A. Use of complementary therapies during chemotherapy: influence of patients' satisfaction with treatment decision making and the treating oncologist. Integr Cancer Ther 2006; 5: 224231.
  • 18
    Yun J, Tomida A, Nagata K, Tsuruo T. Glucose-regulated stresses confer resistance to VP-16 in human cancer cells through a decreased expression of DNA topoisomerase II. Oncol Res 1995; 7: 583590.
  • 19
    Luettig B, Steinmuller C, Gifford GE, Wagner H, Lohmann-Matthes ML. Macrophage activation by the polysaccharide arabinogalactan isolated from plant cell cultures of Echinacea purpurea. J Natl Cancer Inst 1989; 81: 669675.
  • 20
    Greenlee H, Hershman DL, Jacobson JS. Use of antioxidant supplements during breast cancer treatment: a comprehensive review. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2009; 115: 437452.
  • 21
    Cassileth BR, Lusk EJ, Strouse TB, Bodenheimer BJ. Contemporary unorthodox treatments in cancer medicine. A study of patients, treatments, and practitioners. Ann Intern Med 1984; 101: 105112.
  • 22
    Han E, Johnson N, DelaMelena T, Glissmeyer M, Steinbock K. Alternative therapy used as primary treatment for breast cancer negatively impacts outcomes. Ann Surg Oncol 2011; 18: 912916.
  • 23
    Chang EY, Glissmeyer M, Tonnes S, Hudson T, Johnson N. Outcomes of breast cancer in patients who use alternative therapies as primary treatment. Am J Surg 2006; 192: 471473.
  • 24
    Malik IA, Gopalan S. Use of CAM results in delay in seeking medical advice for breast cancer. Eur J Epidemiol 2003; 18: 817822.
  • 25
    Ohlen J, Balneaves LG, Bottorff JL, Brazier AS. The influence of significant others in complementary and alternative medicine decisions by cancer patients. Soc Sci Med 2006; 63: 16251636.
  • 26
    Evans M, Shaw A, Thompson EA et al. Decisions to use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) by male cancer patients: information-seeking roles and types of evidence used. BMC Complement Altern Med 2007; 7: 25.
  • 27
    Xue CC, Zhang AL, Lin V, Da Costa C, Story DF. Complementary and alternative medicine use in Australia: a national population-based survey. J Altern Complement Med 2007; 13: 643650.
  • 28
    Ernst E. Advice offered by practitioners of complementary/alternative medicine: an important ethical issue. Eval Health Prof 2009; 32: 335342.
  • 29
    Canaway R. A culture of dissent: Australian naturopath's perspectives on practitioner regulation. Complement Health Pract Rev 2009; 14: 136152.
  • 30
    Lin V, McCabe P, Bensoussan A et al. The practice and regulatory requirements of naturopathy and western herbal medicine in Australia. Risk Manag Healthc Policy 2009; 2: 2133.
  • 31
    Natural Therapy Pages – Live Blood Analysis. 2012 [cited 14 February 2013]. Available from:
  • 32
    El-Safadi S, Tinneberg HR, von Georgi R, Munstedt K, Bruck F. [Does dark field microscopy according to Enderlein allow for cancer diagnosis? A prospective study]. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd 2005; 12: 148151.
  • 33
    Teut M, Ludtke R, Warning A. Reliability of Enderlein's darkfield analysis of live blood. Altern Ther Health Med 2006; 12: 3641.
  • 34
    Schmidt K, Ernst E. MMR vaccination advice over the Internet. Vaccine 2003; 21: 10441047.
  • 35
    Mills E, Ernst E, Singh R, Ross C, Wilson K. Health food store recommendations: implications for breast cancer patients. Breast Cancer Res 2003; 5: R170174.
  • 36
    Hare RD, Hart SD, Harpur TJ. Psychopathy and the DSM-IV criteria for antisocial personality disorder. J Abnorm Psychol 1991; 100: 391398.
  • 37
    Jarvis WT. Why health professionals become quacks. 1998 [cited 14 February 2013]. Available from:
  • 38
    Shermer M. Why People Believe Weird Things: Pseudoscience, Superstition, and Other Confusions of Our Time. WH Freeman and Company, New York 1997.
  • 39
    Ernst E. Complementary and alternative medicine: between evidence and absurdity. Perspect Biol Med 2009; 52: 289303.
  • 40
    Schmidt K, Ernst E. Assessing websites on complementary and alternative medicine for cancer. Ann Oncol 2004; 15: 733742.
  • 41
    Matthews SC, Camacho A, Mills PJ, Dimsdale JE. The internet for medical information about cancer: help or hindrance? Psychosomatics 2003; 44: 100103.
  • 42
    Verhoef MJ, Mulkins A, Carlson LE, Hilsden RJ, Kania A. Assessing the role of evidence in patients' evaluation of complementary therapies: a quality study. Integr Cancer Ther 2007; 6: 345353.
  • 43
    Molassiotis A, Xu M. Quality and safety issues of web-based information about herbal medicines in the treatment of cancer. Complement Ther Med 2004; 12: 217227.
  • 44
    Milazzo S, Ernst E. Newspaper coverage of complementary and alternative therapies for cancer – UK 2002-2004. Support Care Cancer 2006; 14: 885889.
  • 45
    Mercurio R, Eliott JA. Trick or treat? Australian newspaper portrayal of complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of cancer. Support Care Cancer 2011; 19: 6780.
  • 46
    De Smet PA. Health risks of herbal remedies: an update. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2004; 76: 117.
  • 47
    MacGregor G, Smith AJ, Thakker B, Kinsella J. Yoghurt biotherapy: contraindicated in immunosuppressed patients? Postgrad Med J 2002; 78: 366367.
  • 48
    Mehta A, Rangarajan S, Borate U. A cautionary tale for probiotic use in hematopoietic SCT patients-Lactobacillus acidophilus sepsis in a patient with mantle cell lymphoma undergoing hematopoietic SCT. Bone Marrow Transplant 2013; 48: 461462.
  • 49
    Kressmann S, Muller WE, Blume HH. Pharmaceutical quality of different Ginkgo biloba brands. J Pharm Pharmacol 2002; 54: 661669.
  • 50
    Schulz VHR, Blumenthal M, Tyler VE. Rational Phytotherapy: A Reference Guide for Physicians and Pharmacists. Springer, Berlin 2004.
  • 51
    Kosty MP. PC-SPES: hope or hype? J Clin Oncol 2004; 22: 36573659.
  • 52
    Sovak M, Seligson AL, Konas M et al. Herbal composition PC-SPES for management of prostate cancer: identification of active principles. J Natl Cancer Inst 2002; 94: 12751281.
  • 53
    Vickers A, Zollman C, Lee R, Herbal medicine. West J Med 2001; 175: 125128.
  • 54
    Spinella M. The importance of pharmacological synergy in psychoactive herbal medicines. Altern Med Rev 2002; 7: 130137.
  • 55
    Rowlands D, Masters M, Zehetner A, Ioannou T. Therapeutic Goods Regulation: Complementary Medicines. Department of Health and Aging, 2011.
  • 56
    Dy GK, Bekele L, Hanson LJ et al. Complementary and alternative medicine use by patients enrolled onto phase I clinical trials. J Clin Oncol 2004; 22: 48104815.
  • 57
    McCune JS, Hatfield AJ, Blackburn AA, Leith PO, Livingston RB, Ellis GK. Potential of chemotherapy-herb interactions in adult cancer patients. Support Care Cancer 2004; 12: 454462.
  • 58
    D'Andrea GM. Use of antioxidants during chemotherapy and radiotherapy should be avoided. CA Cancer J Clin 2005; 55: 319321.
  • 59
    Block KI, Koch AC, Mead MN, Tothy PK, Newman RA, Gyllenhaal C. Impact of antioxidant supplementation on chemotherapeutic efficacy: a systematic review of the evidence from randomized controlled trials. Cancer Treat Rev 2007; 33: 407418.
  • 60
    Ladas E, Kelly KM. The antioxidant debate. Explore 2010; 6: 7585.
  • 61
    Akbas HS, Timur M, Ozben T. Concurrent use of antioxidants in cancer therapy: an update. Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2006; 2: 931939.
  • 62
    Block KI, Koch AC, Mead MN, Tothy PK, Newman RA, Gyllenhaal C. Impact of antioxidant supplementation on chemotherapeutic toxicity: a systematic review of the evidence from randomized controlled trials. Int J Cancer 2008; 123: 12271239.
  • 63
    Perrone G, Hideshima T, Ikeda H et al. Ascorbic acid inhibits antitumor activity of bortezomib in vivo. Leukemia 2009; 23: 16791686.
  • 64
    Salganik RI. The benefits and hazards of antioxidants: controlling apoptosis and other protective mechanisms in cancer patients and the human population. J Am Coll Nutr 2001; 20: 464S472; discussion 73S–75S.
  • 65
    Richardson MA, Sanders T, Palmer JL, Greisinger A, Singletary SE. Complementary/alternative medicine use in a comprehensive cancer center and the implications for oncology. J Clin Oncol 2000; 18: 25052514.
  • 66
    Humpel N, Jones SC. Gaining insight into the what, why and where of complementary and alternative medicine use by cancer patients and survivors. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) 2006; 15: 362368.
  • 67
    Giveon SM, Liberman N, Klang S, Kahan E. A survey of primary care physicians' perceptions of their patients' use of complementary medicine. Complement Ther Med 2003; 11: 254260.
  • 68
    Cauffield JS. The psychosocial aspects of complementary and alternative medicine. Pharmacotherapy 2000; 20: 12891294.
  • 69
    Bausell RB. Snake Oil Science: The Truth About Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Oxford University Press, New York 2007.
  • 70
    de la Fuente-Fernandez R, Ruth TJ, Sossi V, Schulzer M, Calne DB, Stoessl AJ. Expectation and dopamine release: mechanism of the placebo effect in Parkinson's disease. Science 2001; 293: 11641166.
  • 71
    Zubieta JK, Bueller JA, Jackson LR et al. Placebo effects mediated by endogenous opioid activity on mu-opioid receptors. J Neurosci 2005; 25: 77547762.
  • 72
    Su C, Lichtenstein GR, Krok K, Brensinger CM, Lewis JD. A meta-analysis of the placebo rates of remission and response in clinical trials of active Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology 2004; 126: 12571269.
  • 73
    Suchman AL, Ader R. Classic conditioning and placebo effects in crossover studies. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1992; 52: 372377.
  • 74
    Verhoef MJ, Rose MS, White M, Balneaves LG. Declining conventional cancer treatment and using complementary and alternative medicine: a problem or a challenge? Curr Oncol 2008; 15 (Suppl. 2): s101106.
  • 75
    Benedetti F, Lanotte M, Lopiano L, Colloca L. When words are painful: unraveling the mechanisms of the nocebo effect. Neuroscience 2007; 147: 260271.
  • 76
    Yeung KS, Gubili J, Cassileth B. Evidence-based botanical research: applications and challenges. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 2008; 22: 661670.
  • 77
    Anonymous. Integration of behavioral and relaxation approaches into the treatment of chronic pain and insomnia. NIH Technology Assessment Panel on Integration of Behavioral and Relaxation Approaches into the Treatment of Chronic Pain and Insomnia. JAMA 1996; 276: 313318.
  • 78
    Murphy RA, Mourtzakis M, Chu QS, Baracos VE, Reiman T, Mazurak VC. Supplementation with fish oil increases first-line chemotherapy efficacy in patients with advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer. Cancer 2011; 117: 37743780.
  • 79
    Sakamoto J, Morita S, Oba K et al. Efficacy of adjuvant immunochemotherapy with polysaccharide K for patients with curatively resected colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of centrally randomized controlled clinical trials. Cancer Immunol Immunother 2006; 55: 404411.
  • 80
    Ryan JL, Heckler CE, Roscoe JA et al. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) reduces acute chemotherapy-induced nausea: a URCC CCOP study of 576 patients. Support Care Cancer 2012; 20: 14791489.
  • 81
    Osterlund P, Ruotsalainen T, Korpela R et al. Lactobacillus supplementation for diarrhoea related to chemotherapy of colorectal cancer: a randomised study. Br J Cancer 2007; 97: 10281034.
  • 82
    Murphy RA, Mourtzakis M, Chu QS, Baracos VE, Reiman T, Mazurak VC. Nutritional intervention with fish oil provides a benefit over standard of care for weight and skeletal muscle mass in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer receiving chemotherapy. Cancer 2011; 117: 17751782.
  • 83
    Gordon JS. Mind-body medicine and cancer. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 2008; 22: 683708.
  • 84
    Ezzo JM, Richardson MA, Vickers A et al. Acupuncture-point stimulation for chemotherapy-induced nausea or vomiting. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006; (2)CD002285.
  • 85
    Lee J, Dodd M, Dibble S, Abrams D. Review of acupressure studies for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting control. J Pain Symptom Manage 2008; 36: 529544.
  • 86
    Lee MS, Choi TY, Park JE, Lee SS, Ernst E. Moxibustion for cancer care: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Cancer 2010; 10: 130.
  • 87
    Knols R, Aaronson NK, Uebelhart D, Fransen J, Aufdemkampe G. Physical exercise in cancer patients during and after medical treatment: a systematic review of randomized and controlled clinical trials. J Clin Oncol 2005; 23: 38303842.
  • 88
    Harder H, Parlour L, Jenkins V. Randomised controlled trials of yoga interventions for women with breast cancer: a systematic literature review. Support Care Cancer 2012; 20: 30553064.
  • 89
    Bower JE, Garet D, Sternlieb B et al. Yoga for persistent fatigue in breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial. Cancer 2012; 118: 37663775.
  • 90
    Richardson J, Smith JE, McCall G, Richardson A, Pilkington K, Kirsch I. Hypnosis for nausea and vomiting in cancer chemotherapy: a systematic review of the research evidence. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) 2007; 16: 402412.
  • 91
    Eremin O, Walker MB, Simpson E et al. Immuno-modulatory effects of relaxation training and guided imagery in women with locally advanced breast cancer undergoing multimodality therapy: a randomised controlled trial. Breast 2009; 18: 1725.
  • 92
    Billhult A, Bergbom I, Stener-Victorin E. Massage relieves nausea in women with breast cancer who are undergoing chemotherapy. J Altern Complement Med 2007; 13: 5357.
  • 93
    Quattrin R, Zanini A, Buchini S et al. Use of reflexology foot massage to reduce anxiety in hospitalized cancer patients in chemotherapy treatment: methodology and outcomes. J Nurs Manag 2006; 14: 96105.
  • 94
    Carlson LE, Speca M, Faris P, Patel KD. One year pre-post intervention follow-up of psychological, immune, endocrine and blood pressure outcomes of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) in breast and prostate cancer outpatients. Brain Behav Immun 2007; 21: 10381049.
  • 95
    Cramer H, Lauche R, Paul A, Dobos G. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for breast cancer-a systematic review and meta-analysis. Curr Oncol 2012; 19: e343352.
  • 96
    Ferrer AJ. The effect of live music on decreasing anxiety in patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment. J Music Ther 2007; 44: 242255.
  • 97
    Lin MF, Hsieh YJ, Hsu YY, Fetzer S, Hsu MC. A randomised controlled trial of the effect of music therapy and verbal relaxation on chemotherapy-induced anxiety. J Clin Nurs 2011; 20: 988999.
  • 98
    Stanton AL, Danoff-Burg S, Sworowski LA et al. Randomized, controlled trial of written emotional expression and benefit finding in breast cancer patients. J Clin Oncol 2002; 20: 41604168.