Influence of temperature, copper and CO2 on spore counts and geosmin production by Penicillium expansum
Version of Record online: 27 NOV 2012
© 2012 Australian Society of Viticulture and Oenology Inc.
Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research
Volume 19, Issue 1, pages 81–86, February 2013
How to Cite
Judet-Correia, D., Bensoussan, M., Charpentier, C. and Dantigny, P. (2013), Influence of temperature, copper and CO2 on spore counts and geosmin production by Penicillium expansum. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, 19: 81–86. doi: 10.1111/ajgw.12004
- Issue online: 24 JAN 2013
- Version of Record online: 27 NOV 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 20 SEP 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 5 SEP 2012
- Manuscript Received: 2 AUG 2012
- carbon dioxide;
- Penicillium expansum;
Background and Aim
Musts and wines produced from rotten grapes often have an earthy/musty odour, with geosmin the responsible compound. Penicillium expansum is considered a potential source of geosmin in rotten grapes from vineyards treated with copper-based fungicides.
Methods and Results
The laboratory study assessed the influence of temperature (10–30°C), copper concentration (0–76.50 mg/L) and CO2 in the headspace (0.03–3%) on the spore count and the production of geosmin by P. expansum according to a Doehlert design. The spore count and the production of geosmin (ng/mg biomass) were significantly correlated (r = 0.78). Copper had no significant effect on the spore count but was the most important factor for explaining geosmin production. The production of geosmin was enhanced at low temperature (15°C), 0.03% CO2 (i.e. atmospheric level) and high copper concentration (76.50 mg/L).
Penicillium expansum, grown on Czapek agar, produced a significant amount of geosmin at low temperature and in the presence of copper.
Significance of the Study
This study suggests a possible explanation for the occurrence of earthy/musty odours in musts and wines made from rotten grapes.