Influence of the solvent system on the composition of phenolic substances and antioxidant capacity of extracts of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) marc
Article first published online: 9 JAN 2014
© 2014 Australian Society of Viticulture and Oenology Inc.
Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research
Volume 20, Issue 2, pages 208–213, June 2014
How to Cite
Agustin-Salazar, S., Medina-Juárez, L.A., Soto-Valdez, H., Manzanares-López, F. and Gámez-Meza, N. (2014), Influence of the solvent system on the composition of phenolic substances and antioxidant capacity of extracts of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) marc. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, 20: 208–213. doi: 10.1111/ajgw.12063
- Issue published online: 23 MAY 2014
- Article first published online: 9 JAN 2014
- Manuscript Accepted: 19 SEP 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 17 SEP 2013
- Manuscript Received: 19 MAR 2013
- CONACYT México. Grant Number: 2008-CB-106224 project
- antioxidant capacity;
- Carignan grape (Vitis vinífera L.);
- grape marc;
- phenolic substance;
- solvent system
Background and Aims
Grape marc (GM), a byproduct of winemaking, contains significant amounts of substances that are not efficiently used. This study investigated the effect of solvent systems on the extraction of phenolic substances and antioxidant capacity (AC) from the Carignan grape (Vitis vinifera L.) marc, as well as from the peduncle, skin and seed of Carignan.
Methods and Results
The solvent systems tested were (v:v): methanol (MeOH) : water (6:4, 7:3 and 9:1), MeOH : water : acetone (ACE) (3:3.5:3.5) and ethanol (EtOH) : water (6:4, 7:3 and 9:1). The highest extraction of phenolic substances and flavonoids was obtained with EtOH : water (6:4 and 7:3) and MeOH : water : ACE (3:3.5:3.5) followed by MeOH : water (7:3). The highest AC was obtained with MeOH : water : ACE (3:3.5:3.5) followed by EtOH : water (6:4 and 7:3). The concentration of phenolic substances varied from 4.72 to 7.05 g catechin equivalents (CE)/kg fresh mass (FM) for seed extracts, 2.72–3.55 g CE/kg FM for skin extracts and 2.03–2.11 g CE/kg FM for peduncle extracts. Catechin, epicatechin, rutin, myricetin, quercetin, epicatechin gallate, quercetin 3-O-glucuronide, quercetin 3-O-hexoside and malvidin 3-hexoside were found in the marc.
Significance of the Study
The best solvent systems for extracting phenolic substances with high AC from Carignan GM were MeOH : water : ACE (3:3.5:3.5) and EtOH : water (6:4 and 7:3). The main phenolic substances that remained in wine marc after fermentation were myricetin, catechin and epicatechin. The results of this study suggest that Carignan GM, considered an industrial waste, is a natural resource of antioxidants.