Mucosal Serpin A1 and A3 Levels in HIV Highly Exposed Sero-Negative Women are Affected by the Menstrual Cycle and Hormonal Contraceptives but are Independent of Epidemiological Confounders
Article first published online: 12 SEP 2012
© 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S
American Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Volume 69, Issue 1, pages 64–72, January 2013
How to Cite
Mucosal serpin A1 and A3 levels in HIV highly exposed sero-negative women are affected by the menstrual cycle and hormonal contraceptives but are independent of epidemiological confounders. Am J Reprod Immunol 2012; 69: 64–72, , , , , , .
- Issue published online: 7 DEC 2012
- Article first published online: 12 SEP 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 28 JUL 2012
- Manuscript Received: 28 APR 2012
- Canadian Institute for Health Research (CIHR)
- the Manitoba Research Health Council (MHRC)
- the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC)
- commercial sex workers;
- female genital tract;
- highly exposed sero-negative ;
- HIV resistance;
- innate immunity;
- mucosal immunity;
Serpins (serine protease inhibitors) are associated with protection against HIV infection. Here, we characterized mucosal serpin expression in the genital tract of HIV highly exposed sero-negative (HESN) women meeting our epidemiological definition of HIV resistance in relation to epidemiological variables.
Cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) fluid and plasma were collected from 84 HIV-resistant, 54 HIV-uninfected, and 66 HIV-infected female commercial sex workers. Serpin A1 and A3 concentrations were measured by ELISA and compared with clinical information.
Mucosal serpin A1 was elevated during proliferative phase over secretory phase (P = 0.017*), while A3 remained similar (P = 0.25). Plasma and mucosal serpin A1/A3 levels were not associated with each other and appeared compartment specific (r = 0.21, r = 0.056). Serpin A1/A3 expression did not associate with age (r = 0.009, r = −0.06), duration of sex work (r = 0.13, r = −0.10), clients per day (r = −0.11, r = −0.02), concurrent STIs (P = 0.36, P = 0.15), but was lower in women using hormonal contraceptives (P = 0.034, P = 0.008). Mucosal serpin A1/A3 levels in HIV-infected individuals were not significantly different with disease status as determined by plasma CD4+ T-cell counts (P = 0.94, P = 0.30).
This study shows the relationship of serpins to the menstrual cycle and hormonal contraceptives, as well as their independence to epidemiological sexual confounders. This information provides a broader understanding of innate components of the mucosal immune system in women.