HIV-1 Imposes Rigidity on Blood and Semen Cytokine Networks
Article first published online: 24 SEP 2012
© 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S
American Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Volume 68, Issue 6, pages 515–521, December 2012
How to Cite
HIV-1 imposes rigidity on blood and semen cytokine networks. Am J Reprod Immunol 2012, , , , , , , .
- Issue published online: 8 NOV 2012
- Article first published online: 24 SEP 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 30 JUL 2012
- Manuscript Received: 18 MAR 2012
- National Institutes of Health
- NIH Intramural-to-India
Although it is established that the levels of individual cytokines are altered by HIV-1 infection, the changes in cytokine interrelations that organize them into networks have been poorly studied. Here, we evaluated these networks in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals in fluid compartments that are critical for HIV-1 pathogenesis and transmission, namely blood and semen.
Method of Study
In samples collected from therapy-naïve HIV-1-infected and HIV-1-uninfected individuals, we measured HIV-1-load, CD4 cell count, and levels of 21 cytokines using a multiplex bead assay.
Cytokine networks in blood and semen were different for HIV-1-infected and HIV-1-uninfected individuals. In both compartments of HIV-1-infected individuals, the cytokine networks were more interlocked than in controls: HIV-1 infection resulted in the establishment of new correlations and in the strengthening of pre-existing correlations between different cytokines. In blood and semen of HIV-infected patients, there were, respectively, 68 and 72 statistically significant correlations between cytokines, while in uninfected individuals, there were 18 and 21 such correlations.
HIV-1 infection reorganizes the cytokine networks, establishing new strong correlations between various cytokines and thus imposes a high rigidity on the cytokine network. This rigidity may reflect the impairment of the ability of the immune system to respond to microbial challenges.