Fetal Membrane Biomarker Network Diversity and Disease Functions Induced by Intra-amniotic Pathogens
Article first published online: 6 DEC 2012
© 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S
American Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Volume 69, Issue 2, pages 124–133, February 2013
How to Cite
Fetal Membrane Biomarker Network Diversity and Disease Functions Induced by Intra-amniotic Pathogens. Am J Reprod Immunol 2013; 69: 124–133, , , , , .
- Issue published online: 8 JAN 2013
- Article first published online: 6 DEC 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 24 OCT 2012
- Manuscript Received: 28 AUG 2012
- NIH. Grant Number: #1R03HD067446-01
- fetal membranes;
- intra-amniotic infection;
Intra-amniotic pathogens and by-products activate innate immune responses encompassing multitudes of signaling molecules and pathways that can result in spontaneous preterm birth (PTB). This study investigates fetal membrane response to bacterial stimulation using a bioinformatics approach.
Method of study
Dysregulated biomarker (IL1-β, IL-2, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α) data from fetal membranes at term stimulated with Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum, Mycoplasma hominis, E. coli, Group B Streptococci, Polyporhans gingivalis, or Gardnerella vaginalis with 50% (v/v) amniotic fluid (AF) were analyzed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis.
In racially stratified analysis, networks representing late-stage immune inflammation were seen in African-Americans in AF absence. Inflammation was dominant in AF presence as well. In Caucasians, late-stage immune response was dominant with AF, but not in its absence.
Fetal membrane biofunctions in response to bacteria reflect early- and late-stage innate immune defenses that vary based on the presence of AF and subject race.