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Fetal Membrane Biomarker Network Diversity and Disease Functions Induced by Intra-amniotic Pathogens

Authors

  • Geeta Bhat,

    1. Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, TX, USA
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  • Morgan R. Peltier,

    1. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Winthrop University Hospital, Mineola, NY, USA
    2. Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine, SUNY-Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY, USA
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  • Tariq Ali Syed,

    1. Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, TX, USA
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  • Cayce O. Drobek,

    1. The Perinatal Research Center, Nashville, TN, USA
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  • George Saade,

    1. Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, TX, USA
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  • Ramkumar Menon

    Corresponding author
    • Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, TX, USA
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Correspondence

Ramkumar Menon, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine and Perinatal Research, The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, 301 University Blvd. MRB, Room 11.138, Galveston, TX 77555-1062 USA.

E-mail: ram.menon@utmb.edu

Abstract

Problem

Intra-amniotic pathogens and by-products activate innate immune responses encompassing multitudes of signaling molecules and pathways that can result in spontaneous preterm birth (PTB). This study investigates fetal membrane response to bacterial stimulation using a bioinformatics approach.

Method of study

Dysregulated biomarker (IL1-β, IL-2, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α) data from fetal membranes at term stimulated with Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum, Mycoplasma hominis, E. coli, Group B Streptococci, Polyporhans gingivalis, or Gardnerella vaginalis with 50% (v/v) amniotic fluid (AF) were analyzed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis.

Results

In racially stratified analysis, networks representing late-stage immune inflammation were seen in African-Americans in AF absence. Inflammation was dominant in AF presence as well. In Caucasians, late-stage immune response was dominant with AF, but not in its absence.

Conclusions

Fetal membrane biofunctions in response to bacteria reflect early- and late-stage innate immune defenses that vary based on the presence of AF and subject race.

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