• 1
    Rykiel E: Testing ecological models: the meaning of validation. Ecol Model 1996; 90:219224.
  • 2
    Baral S, Beyrer C, Muessig K, Poteat T, Wirtz AL, Decker MR, Sherman SG, Kerrigan D: Burden of HIV among female sex workers in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 2012; 12:538549.
  • 3
    Beattie TS, Bhattacharjee P, Ramesh BM, Gurnani V, Anthony J, Isac S, Mohan HL, Ramakrishnan A, Wheeler T, Bradley J, Blanchard JF, Moses S: Violence against female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India: impact on health, and reductions in violence following an intervention program. BMC Public Health 2010; 10:476.
  • 4
    Decker MR, Wirtz AL, Baral SD, Peryshkina A, Mogilnyi V, Weber RA, Stachowiak J, Go V, Beyrer C: Injection drug use, sexual risk, violence and STI/HIV among Moscow female sex workers. Sex Transm Infect 2012; 88:278283.
  • 5
    Reed E, Gupta J, Biradavolu M, Devireddy V, Blankenship KM: The context of economic insecurity and its relation to violence and risk factors for HIV among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India. Public Health Rep 2010; 125(Suppl 4):8189.
  • 6
    Sex Workers Rights Advocacy N: Arrest the violence: human rights abuses against sex workers in central and Eastern Europe and central Asia 2009.
  • 7
    Swain Sea: Experience of violence and adverse reproductive health outcomes, HIV risks among mobile female sex workers in India. BMC Public Health 2011; 11:357.
  • 8
    Decker MR, Silverman JG, Raj A: Dating violence and sexually transmitted disease/HIV testing and diagnosis among adolescent females. Pediatrics 2005; 116:e272e276.
  • 9
    Dunkle KL, Jewkes RK, Brown HC, Gray GE, McIntryre JA, Harlow SD: Gender-based violence, relationship power, and risk of HIV infection in women attending antenatal clinics in South Africa. Lancet 2004; 363:14151421.
  • 10
    Silverman JG, Decker MR, Saggurti N, Balaiah D, Raj A: Intimate partner violence and HIV infection among married Indian women. JAMA 2008; 300:703710.
  • 11
    Ulibarri MD, Strathdee SA, Ulloa EC, Lozada R, Fraga MA, Magis-Rodrãguez C, Patterson TL: Injection drug use as a mediator between client-perpetrated abuse and HIV status among female sex workers in two mexico-US border cities. AIDS Behav 2011; 12:179185.
  • 12
    Decker MR, McCauley HL, Phuengsamran D, Janyam S, Seage GR 3rd, Silverman JG: Violence victimisation, sexual risk and sexually transmitted infection symptoms among female sex workers in Thailand. Sex Transm Infect 2010; 86:236240.
  • 13
    Cohan D, Lutnick A, Davidson P, Cloniger C, Herlyn A, Breyer J, Cobaugh C, Wilson D, Klausner J: Sex worker health: San Francisco style. Sex Transm Infect 2006; 82:418422.
  • 14
    Rhodes T, Simic M, Baros S, Platt L, Zikic B: Police violence and sexual risk among female and transvestite sex workers in Serbia: qualitative study. BMJ 2008; 337:a811.
  • 15
    Stachowiak JA, Sherman S, Konakova A, Krushkova I, Beyrer C, Peryskina A, Strathdee S: Health risks and power among female sex workers in Moscow. SEICUS Rep 2005; 22:1826.
  • 16
    Kerrigan D, Telles P, Torres H, Overs C, Castle C: Community development and HIV/STI-related vulnerability among female sex workers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Health Educ Res 2008; 23:137145.
  • 17
    Simic M, Rhodes T: Violence, dignity and HIV vulnerability: street sex work in Serbia. Sociol Health Illn 2009; 31:116.
  • 18
    Adams JA, Girardin B, Faugno D: Adolescent sexual assault: documentation of acute injuries using photo-colposcopy. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2001; 14:175180.
  • 19
    McLean I, Roberts SA, White C, Paul S: Female genital injuries resulting from consensual and non-consensual vaginal intercourse. Forensic Sci Int 2011; 204:2733.
  • 20
    Klot JF: The physiology of sexual violence, genito-anal injury and HIV: opportunities for improving risk estimation. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2012. [Epub ahead of print].
  • 21
    Maguire W, Goodall E, Moore T: Injury in adult female sexual assault complainants and related factors. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2009; 142:149153.
  • 22
    Decker MR, Seage GR 3rd, Hemenway D, Raj A, Saggurti N, Balaiah D, Silverman JG: Intimate partner violence functions as both a risk marker and risk factor for women's HIV infection: findings from Indian husband-wife dyads. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2009; 51:593600.
  • 23
    Weiss HA, Patel V, West B, Peeling RW, Kirkwood BR, Mabey D: Spousal sexual violence and poverty are risk factors for sexually transmitted infections in women: a longitudinal study of women in Goa, India. Sex Transm Infect 2008; 84:133139.
  • 24
    Jewkes RK, Dunkle K, Nduna M, Shai N: Intimate partner violence, relationship power inequity, and incidence of HIV infection in young women in South Africa: a cohort study. Lancet 2010; 376:4148.
  • 25
    Carlson CE, Chen J, Chang M, Batsukh A, Toivgoo A, Riedel M, Witte SS: Reducing intimate and paying partner violence against women who exchange sex in Mongolia: results from a randomized clinical trial. J Interpers Violence 2012; 27:19111931.
  • 26
    Futures Institute: Goals Manual: A Model for Estimating the Effects of Interventions and Resource Allocation on HIV Infections and Deaths. Glastonbury, CT, Futures Institute, 2011.
  • 27
    WHO: Antiretrovial Therapy for HIV Infection in Adults and Adolescents: 2010 Revision. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2010.
  • 28
    Eshleman SH, Hudelson SE, Redd AD, Wang L, Debes R, Chen YQ, Martens CA, Ricklefs SM, Selig EJ, Porcella SF, Munshaw S, Ray SC, Piwowar-Manning E, McCauley M, Hosseinipour MC, Kumwenda J, Hakim JG, Chariyalertsak S, de Bruyn G, Grinsztejn B, Kumarasamy N, Makhema J, Mayer KH, Pilotto J, Santos BR, Quinn TC, Cohen MS, Hughes JP: Analysis of genetic linkage of HIV from couples enrolled in the HIV Prevention Trials Network 052 trial. J Infect Dis 2011; 204:19181926.
  • 29
    Dunkle KL, Decker MR: Gender-based violence and HIV: reviewing evidence for links and causal pathways in the general population and high-risk groups. Am J Reprod Immunol 2012. [Epub ahead of print].
  • 30
    Okal J, Chersich MF, Tsui S, Sutherland E, Temmerman M, Luchters S: Sexual and physical violence against female sex workers in Kenya: a qualitative enquiry. AIDS Care 2011; 23:612618.
  • 31
    WHO: Systematic Review on Violence Against Sex Workers and HIV. Geneva, WHO, 2012. (forthcoming).
  • 32
    Shannon K, Strathdee SA, Shoveller J, Rusch M, Kerr T, Tyndall MW: Structural and environmental barriers to condom use negotiation with clients among female sex workers: implications for HIV-prevention strategies and policy. Am J Public Health 2009; 99:659665.
  • 33
    Stulhofer A, Lausevic D, Bozicevic I, Bacak V, Mugoba B, Terzic N, Drglin T: HIV risks among female sex workers in Croatia and Montenegro. Coll Antropol 2010; 34:881886.
  • 34
    Surrat HL, Kurtz SP, Weaver JC, Inciardi JA: The connections of mental health problems, violent life experiences, and the social milieu of the ‘stroll’ with the HIV risk behaviors of female street sex workers. J Psychol Human Sex 2005; 17:2344.
  • 35
    Baggaley RF, White RG, Boily MC: HIV transmission risk through anal intercourse: systematic review, meta-analysis and implications for HIV prevention. Int J Epidemiol 2010; 39:10481063.
  • 36
    Boily MC, Buve A, Baggaley RF: HIV transmission in serodiscordant heterosexual couples. BMJ 2010; 340:c2449.
  • 37
    Baggaley RF, Dimitrov D, Owen BN, Pickles M, Butler AR, Masse B, Boily MC: Heterosexual anal intercourse: a neglected risk factor for HIV? Am J Reprod Immunol 2012.
  • 38
    Schwandt M, Morris C, Ferguson A, Ngugi E, Moses S: Anal and dry sex in commercial sex work, and relation to risk for sexually transmitted infections and HIV in Meru, Kenya. Sex Transm Infect 2006; 82:392396.
  • 39
    AIDS Alliance Ukraine: Publications of the HIV/AIDS Alliance in Ukraine., 2011.
  • 40
    National AIDS Control Council: UNGASS 2010: Country Report - Kenya: National AIDS Control Council, 2010.
  • 41
    National Aids Control Council OotPK, World B, Unaids: Kenya HIV Prevention Response and Modes of Transmission Analysis. Nairobi, NACC, 2009.
  • 42
    UNAIDS, Ministry of Health of Ukraine: Ukraine: national report on monitoring progress toward the UNGASS Declaration of commitment on HIV/AIDS. Reporting period: January 2008 – December 2009. Kiev 2010.
  • 43
    Chersich MF, Luchters SMF, Malonza IM, Mwarogo P, King'ola N, Temmerman M: Heavy episodic drinking among Kenyan female sex workers is associated with unsafe sex, sexual violence and sexually transmitted infections. Int J STD AIDS 2007; 18:764769.
  • 44
    Kimani J, Kaul R, Nagelkerke NJD, Luo M, MacDonald KS, Ngugi E, Fowke KR, Ball BT, Kariri A, Ndinya-Achola J, Plummer FA: Reduced rates of HIV acquisition during unprotected sex by Kenyan female sex workers predating population declines in HIV prevalence. AIDS 2008; 22:131137.
  • 45
    Luchters SM, Vanden Broeck D, Chersich MF, Nel A, Delva W, Mandaliya K, Depuydt CE, Claeys P, Bogers JP, Temmerman M: Association of HIV infection with distribution and viral load of HPV types in Kenya: a survey with 820 female sex workers. BMC Infect Dis 2010; 10:18.
  • 46
    McClelland RS, Richardson BA, Wanje GH, Graham SM, Mutunga E, Peshu N, Kiarie JN, Kurth AE, Jaoko W: Association between participant self-report and biological outcomes used to measure sexual risk behavior in human immunodeficiency virus-1-seropositive female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya. Sex Transm Dis 2011; 38:429433.
  • 47
    Tovanabutra S, Sanders EJ, Graham SM, Mwangome M, Peshu N, McClelland RS, Muhaari A, Crossler J, Price MA, Gilmour J, Michael NL, McCutchan FM: Evaluation of HIV type 1 strains in men having sex with men and in female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2010; 26:123131.
  • 48
    Van der Elst EM, Okuku HS, Nakamya P, Muhaari A, Davies A, McClelland RS, Price MA, Smith AD, Graham SM, Sanders EJ: Is audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) useful in risk behaviour assessment of female and male sex workers, Mombasa, Kenya? PLoS ONE 2009; 4:e5340.
  • 49
    Chersich MF, Luchters SM, Malonza IM, Mwarogo P, King'ola N, Temmerman M: Heavy episodic drinking among Kenyan female sex workers is associated with unsafe sex, sexual violence and sexually transmitted infections. Int J STD AIDS 2007; 18:764769.
  • 50
    Tucker S, Krishna R, Prabhakar P, Panyam S, Anand P: Exploring dynamics of anal sex among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh. Indian J Sex Transm Dis 2012; 33:915.
  • 51
    Cohen MS, Chen YQ, McCauley M, Gamble T, Hosseinipour MC, Kumarasamy N, Hakim JG, Kumwenda J, Grinsztejn B, Pilotto JH, Godbole SV, Mehendale S, Chariyalertsak S, Santos BR, Mayer KH, Hoffman IF, Eshleman SH, Piwowar-Manning E, Wang L, Makhema J, Mills LA, de Bruyn G, Sanne I, Eron J, Gallant J, Havlir D, Swindells S, Ribaudo H, Elharrar V, Burns D, Taha TE, Nielsen-Saines K, Celentano D, Essex M, Fleming TR: Prevention of HIV-1 infection with early antiretroviral therapy. New Eng J Med 2011; 365:493505.
  • 52
    Reza-Paul S, Beattie T, Syed HU, Venukumar KT, Venugopal MS, Fathima MP, Raghavendra HR, Akram P, Manjula R, Lakshmi M, Isac S, Ramesh BM, Washington R, Mahagaonkar SB, Glynn JR, Blanchard JF, Moses S: Declines in risk behaviour and sexually transmitted infection prevalence following a community-led HIV preventive intervention among female sex workers in Mysore, India. AIDS 2008; 22(Suppl 5):S91S100.
  • 53
    Amnesty International: Nigeria: Rape- the Silent Weapon. London, Amnesty International, 2006. AFR 44/020/2006.
  • 54
    ASWA: Final report: “I expect to be abused and I have fear”: sex workers' experiences of human rights violations and barriers to accessing healthcare in four African countries. 2011.
  • 55
    Dunkle KL, Jewkes RK, Nduna M, Levin J, Jama N, Khuzwayo N, Koss MP, Duvvury N: Perpetration of partner violence and HIV risk behaviour among young men in the rural Eastern Cape, South Africa. AIDS 2006; 20:21072114.
  • 56
    Martin SL, Matza LS, Kupper LL, Thomas JC, Daly M, Cloutier S: Domestic violence and sexually transmitted diseases: the experience of prenatal care patints. Public Health Rep 1999; 114:262268.
  • 57
    Raj A, Santana MC, La Marche A, Amaro H, Cranston K, Silverman JG: Perpetration of intimate partner violence associated with sexual risk behaviors among young adult men. Am J Public Health 2006; 96:18731878.
  • 58
    Jama Shai N, Jewkes R, Nduna M, Dunkle K: Masculinities and condom use patterns among young rural South Africa men: a cross-sectional baseline survey. BMC Public Health 2012; 12:462.
  • 59
    Decker MR, Seage GR 3rd, Hemenway D, Gupta J, Raj A, Silverman JG: Intimate partner violence perpetration, standard and gendered STI/HIV risk behaviour, and STI/HIV diagnosis among a clinic-based sample of men. Sex Transm Infect 2009; 85:555560.
  • 60
    Jewkes R, Sikweyiya Y, Morrell R, Dunkle K: The relationship between intimate partner violence, rape and HIV amongst South African men: a cross-sectional study. PLoS ONE 2011; 6:e24256.
  • 61
    Slaughter L, Brown CR, Crowley S, Peck R: Patterns of genital injury in female sexual assault victims. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1997; 176:609616.
  • 62
    WHO: Violence Against Women and HIV/AIDS: Critical Interections - Intimate Partner Violence and HIV/AIDS. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2004.
  • 63
    WHO: WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence against Women. Geneva, WHO, 2005.
  • 64
    Cheluget B, Baltazar G, Orege P, Ibrahim M, Marum LH, Stover J: Evidence for population level declines in adult HIV prevalence in Kenya. Sex Transm Infect 2006; 82(Suppl 1):i21i26.
  • 65
    USAID, Ministry of Health of Ukraine: Ukraine: HIV/AIDS Health Profile. Kiev, USAID, Ministry of Health of Ukraine, 2010.
  • 66
    Hirbod T, Kaul R, Reichard C, Kimani J, Ngugi E, Bwayo JJ, Nagelkerke N, Hasselrot K, Li B, Moses S, MacDonald KS, Broliden K: HIV-neutralizing immunoglobulin A and HIV-specific proliferation are independently associated with reduced HIV acquisition in Kenyan sex workers. AIDS 2008; 22:727735.
  • 67
    Lacap PA, Huntington JD, Luo M, Nagelkerke NJD, Bielawny T, Kimani J, Wachihi C, Ngugi EN, Plummer FA: Associations of human leukocyte antigen DRB with resistance or susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in the Pumwani Sex Worker Cohort. AIDS 2008; 22:10291038.
  • 68
    USAID, Ministry of Health of Ukraine: Europe and Eurasia Region: HIV/AIDS Health Profile. Kiev, USAID, Ministry of Health of Ukraine, 2011.
  • 69
    Vandepitte J, Lyerla R, Dallabetta G, Crabbe F, Alary M, Buve A: Estimates of the number of female sex workers in different regions of the world. Sex Transm Infect 2006; 82(Suppl 3):iii18iii25.
  • 70
    Hawken MP, Melis RD, Ngombo DT, Mandaliya KN, Ng'ang'a LW, Price J, Dallabetta G, Temmerman M: Opportunity for prevention of HIV and sexually transmitted infections in Kenyan youth: results of a population-based survey. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2002; 31:529535.
  • 71
    Morris CN, Morris SR, Ferguson AG: Sexual behavior of female sex workers and access to condoms in Kenya and uganda on the trans-Africa highway. AIDS Behav 2009; 13:860865.
  • 72
    NASCOP: Most-At-Risk Populations: Unveiling New Evidence for Accelerated Programming (MARPs Surveillance Report). Nairobi: National AIDS and STD Control Program, 2012.
  • 73
    Tegang S, Abdallah S, Emukule G, Luchters SM, Kingola N, Barasca M, Mucheke S, Mwarogo P: Concurrent sexual and substance-use risk bevahiors among female sex workers in Kenya's Coast Province: findings from a behavioral monitoring survey. Sahara 2010; 7:10.
  • 74
    Kyrychenko P, Polonets V: High HIV risk profile among female commercial sex workers in Vinnitsa, Ukraine. Sex Transm Infect 2005; 81:187188.
  • 75
    Ferguson AG, Morris CN: Mapping transactional sex on the Northern Corridor highway in Kenya. Health Place 2007; 13:504519.
  • 76
    Balakireva O, Bondar T, Sereda U: Monitoring Behavior of Female Commercial Sex Workers as a Component of Second Generation Epidemiological Survey. Kyiv, International HIV/AIDS Alliance, 2007.
  • 77
    Ngugi E, Benoit C, Hallgrimsdottir H, Jansson M, Roth EA: Partners and clients of female sex workers in an informal urban settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. Cult Health Sex 2012; 14:1730.
  • 78
    Fonck K, Kaul R, Kimani J, Keli F, MacDonald KS, Ronald AR, Plummer FA, Kirui P, Bwayo JJ, Ngugi EN, Moses S, Temmerman M: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of monthly azithromycin prophylaxis to prevent sexually transmitted infections and HIV-1 in Kenyan sex workers: study design and baseline findings. Int J STD AIDS 2000; 11:804811.