Cytokine Levels in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: a Systematic Review of the Literature



Silvia Daher, Department of Obstetrics, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Rua Bela Cintra 1920/41, São Paulo, SP CEP 01415-002, Brazil.




Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an inflammatory condition that involves unbalanced cytokine production. We carried out a systematic review on the relationship between GDM and maternal circulating levels of cytokines in the 2nd/3rd trimesters.

Method of Study

Three electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS), were searched. Duplicate study selection, extraction and quality assessment was performed.


Twenty-two studies with 1982 participants reporting levels of 9 cytokines (IL-1B, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IL-18, IFN-G, TGF-B and TNF-A) were included. Most studies differed considerably in selection criteria, sampling and assay methods and in reporting their results. Consequently, only two studies could be pooled: TNF-A concentration was slightly higher in GDM than in control patients, although not significant (WMD = 0.45, 95% CI −0.34–1.23).


New studies with well-defined, more homogeneous methodological parameters are needed to detect whether there are significant differences in circulating levels of cytokines in patients with GDM.