• 1
    Harris EN, Chan JK, Asherson RA, Aber VR, Gharavi AE, Hughes GR: Thrombosis, recurrent fetal loss, and thrombocytopenia. Predictive value of the anticardiolipin antibody test. Arch Intern Med 1986; 146:21532156.
  • 2
    Miyakis S, Lockshin MD, Atsumi T, Branch DW, Brey RL, Cervera R, Derksen RH, DE Groot PG, Koike T, Meroni PL, Reber G, Shoenfeld Y, Tincani A, Vlachoyiannopoulos PG, Krilis SA: International consensus statement on an update of the classification criteria for definite antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). J Thromb Haemost 2006; 4:295306.
  • 3
    Ford HB, Schust DJ: Recurrent pregnancy loss: etiology, diagnosis, and therapy. Rev Obstet Gynecol 2009; 2:7683.
  • 4
    Lockshin MD, Druzin ML, Goei S, Qamar T, Magid MS, Jovanovic L, Ferenc M: Antibody to cardiolipin as a predictor of fetal distress or death in pregnant patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. N Engl J Med 1985; 313:152156.
  • 5
    Branch DW, Scott JR, Kochenour NK, Hershgold E: Obstetric complications associated with the lupus anticoagulant. N Engl J Med 1985; 313:13221326.
  • 6
    Rai RS, Regan L, Clifford K, Pickering W, Dave M, Mackie I, McNally T, Cohen H: Antiphospholipid antibodies and beta 2-glycoprotein-I in 500 women with recurrent miscarriage: results of a comprehensive screening approach. Hum Reprod 1995; 10:20012005.
  • 7
    Branch DW, Silver RM, Blackwell JL, Reading JC, Scott JR: Outcome of treated pregnancies in women with antiphospholipid syndrome: an update of the Utah experience. Obstet Gynecol 1992; 80:614620.
  • 8
    Rai RS, Clifford K, Cohen H, Regan L: High prospective fetal loss rate in untreated pregnancies of women with recurrent miscarriage and antiphospholipid antibodies. Hum Reprod 1995; 10:33013304.
  • 9
    Carvalho JF: Some concerns about the Sydney criteria for antiphospholipid syndrome. Lupus 2008; 17:770.
  • 10
    Girardi G, Berman J, Redecha P, Spruce L, Thurman JM, Kraus D, Hollmann TJ, Casali P, Caroll MC, Wetsel RA, Lambris JD, Holers VM, Salmon JE: Complement C5a receptors and neutrophils mediate fetal injury in the antiphospholipid syndrome. J Clin Invest 2003; 112:16441654.
  • 11
    Redecha P, Tilley R, Tencati M, Salmon JE, Kirchhofer D, Mackman N, Girardi G: Tissue factor: a link between C5a and neutrophil activation in antiphospholipid antibody induced fetal injury. Blood 2007; 110:24232431.
  • 12
    Cohen D, Buurma A, Goemaere NN, Girardi G, le Cessie S, Scherjon S, Bloemenkamp KW, de Heer E, Bruijn JA, Bajema IM: Classical complement activation as a footprint for murine and human antiphospholipid antibody-induced fetal loss. J Pathol 2011; 225:502511.
  • 13
    Khamashta MA, Harris EN, Gharavi AE, Derue G, Gil A, Vázquez JJ, Hughes GR: Immune mediated mechanism for thrombosis: antiphospholipid antibody binding to platelet membranes. Ann Rheum Dis 1988; 47:849854.
  • 14
    Bizzaro N, Tonutti E, Villalta D, Tampoia M, Tozzoli R: Prevalence and clinical correlation of anti-phospholipid-binding protein antibodies in anticardiolipin-negative patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and women with unexplained recurrent miscarriages. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2005; 129:6168.
  • 15
    Amoroso A, Mitterhofer AP, Del Porto F, Garzia P, Ferri GM, Galluzzo S, Vadacca M, Caccavo D, Afeltra A: Antibodies to anionic phospholipids and anti-beta2-GPI: association with thrombosis and thrombocytopenia in systemic lupus erythematosus. Hum Immunol 2003; 64:265273.
  • 16
    Kwak JY, Gilman-Sachs A, Beaman KD, Beer AE: Autoantibodies in women with primary recurrent spontaneous abortion of unknown etiology. J Reprod Immunol 1992; 22:1531.
  • 17
    Franklin RD, Kutteh WH: Antiphospholipid antibodies (APA) and recurrent pregnancy loss: treating a unique APA positive population. Hum Reprod 2002; 17:29812985.
  • 18
    Ruiz JE, Cubillos J, Mendoza JC, Espinel FJ, Kwak JY, Beer AE: Autoantibodies to phospholipids and nuclear antigens in non-pregnant and pregnant Colombian women with recurrent spontaneous abortions. J Reprod Immunol 1995; 28:4151.
  • 19
    Branch W: Report of the Obstetric APS Task Force: 13th International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies, 13th April 2010. Lupus 2011; 20:158164.
  • 20
    Asherson RA, Cervera R: Microvascular and microangiopathic antiphospholipid-associated syndromes (“MAPS”): semantic or antisemantic? Autoimmun Rev 2008; 7:164167.
  • 21
    Palatinus AA, Ahuja KD, Adams MJ: Effects of antiphospholipid antibodies on in vitro platelet aggregation. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2012; 18:5965.
  • 22
    Oku K, Amengual O, Atsumi T: Pathophysiology of thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity in the antiphospholipid syndrome. Eur J Clin Invest 2012; 42:11261135.
  • 23
    Chen Q, Guo F, Hensby-Bennett S, Stone P, Chamley L: Antiphospholipid antibodies prolong the activation of endothelial cells induced by necrotic trophoblastic debris: implications for the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Placenta 2012; 33:810815.
  • 24
    Gharavi AE, Pierangeli SS, Colden-Stanfield M, Liu XW, Espinola RG, Harris EN: GDKV-induced antiphospholipid antibodies enhance thrombosis and activate endothelial cells in vivo and in vitro. J Immunol 1999; 163:29222927.
  • 25
    Cugno M, Borghi MO, Lonati LM, Ghiadoni L, Gerosa M, Grossi C, DE Angelis V, Magnaghi G, Tincani A, Mari D, Riboldi P, Meroni PL: Patients with antiphospholipid syndrome display endothelial perturbation. J Autoimmun 2010; 34:105110.
  • 26
    Espinola RG, Liu X, Colden-Stanfield M, Hall J, Harris EN, Pierangeli SS: E-Selectin mediates pathogenic effects of antiphospholipid antibodies. J Thromb Haemost 2003; 1:843848.
  • 27
    Kaplanski G, Cacoub P, Farnarier C, Marin V, Grégoire R, Gatel A, Durand JM, Harlé JR, Bongrand P, Piette JC: Increased soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 concentrations in patients with primary or systemic lupus erythematosus-related antiphospholipid syndrome: correlations with the severity of thrombosis. Arthritis Rheum 2000; 43:5564.
  • 28
    Pierangeli SS, Espinola RG, Liu X, Harris EN: Thrombogenic effects of antiphospholipid antibodies are mediated by intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and P-selectin. Circ Res 2001; 88:245250.
  • 29
    Semeraro N, Colucci M: Tissue factor in health and disease. Thromb Haemost 1997; 78:759764.
  • 30
    Simantov R, LaSala JM, Lo SK, Gharavi AE, Sammaritano LR, Salmon JE, Silverstein RL: Activation of cultured vascular endothelial cells by antiphospholipid antibodies. J Clin Invest 1995; 96:22112219.
  • 31
    Pierangeli SS, Colden-Stanfield M, Liu X, Barker JH, Anderson GL, Harris EN: Antiphospholipid antibodies from antiphospholipid syndrome patients activate endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Circulation 1999; 99:19972002.
  • 32
    Atsumi T, Amengual O, Yasuda S, Matsuura E, Koike T: Research around beta 2-glycoprotein I: a major target for antiphospholipid antibodies. Autoimmunity 2005; 38:377381.
  • 33
    Rand JH, Wu XX: Antibody-mediated interference with annexins in the antiphospholipid syndrome. Thromb Res 2004; 114:383389.
  • 34
    Poindron V, Berat R, Knapp AM, Toti F, Zobairi F, Korganow AS, Chenard MP, Gounou C, Pasquali JL, Brisson A, Martin T: Evidence for heterogeneity of the obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome: thrombosis can be critical for antiphospholipid-induced pregnancy loss. J Thromb Haemost 2011; 9:19371947.
  • 35
    Sebire NJ, Fox H, Backos M, Rai R, Paterson C, Regan L: Defective endovascular trophoblast invasion in primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome-associated early pregnancy failure. Hum Reprod 2002; 17:10671071.
  • 36
    Di Simone N, Di Nicuolo F, D'Ippolito S, Castellani R, Tersigni C, Caruso A, Meroni P, Marana R: Antiphospholipid antibodies affect human endometrial angiogenesis. Biol Reprod 2010; 83:212219.
  • 37
    Mulla MJ, Brosens JJ, Chamley LW, Giles I, Pericleous C, Rahman A, Joyce SK, Panda B, Paidas MJ, Abrahams VM: Antiphospholipid antibodies induce a pro-inflammatory response in first trimester trophoblast via the TLR4/MyD88 pathway. Am J Reprod Immunol 2009; 62:96111.
  • 38
    Mulla MJ, Myrtolli K, Brosens JJ, Chamley LW, Kwak-Kim JY, Paidas MJ, Abrahams VM: Antiphospholipid antibodies limit trophoblast migration by reducing IL-6 production and STAT3 activity. Am J Reprod Immunol 2010; 63:339348.
  • 39
    Di Simone N, Meroni PL, De Papa N, Raschi E, Caliandro D, De Carolis CS, Khamashta MA, Atsumi T, Hughes GR, Balestrieri G, Tincani A, Casali P, Caruso A: Antiphospholipid antibodies affect trophoblast gonadotropin secretion and invasiveness by binding directly and through adhered beta2-glycoprotein I. Arthritis Rheum 2000; 43:140150.
  • 40
    Pierangeli SS, Girardi G, Vega-Ostertag M, Liu X, Espinola RG, Salmon J: Requirement of activation of complement C3 and C5 for antiphospholipid antibody-mediated thrombophilia. Arthritis Rheum 2005; 52:21202124.
  • 41
    Kwak JY, Beer AE, Kim SH, Mantouvalos HP: Immunopathology of the implantation site utilizing monoclonal antibodies to natural killer cells in women with recurrent pregnancy losses. Am J Reprod Immunol 1999; 41:9198.
  • 42
    Salafia CM, Cowchock FS: Placental pathology and antiphospholipid antibodies: a descriptive study. Am J Perinatol 1997; 14:435441.
  • 43
    Girardi G, Mackman N: Tissue factor in antiphospholipid antibody-induced pregnancy loss: a pro-inflammatory molecule. Lupus 2008; 17:931936.
  • 44
    Girardi G, Yarilin D, Thurman JM, Holers VM, Salmon JE: Complement activation induces dysregulation of angiogenic factors and causes fetal rejection and growth restriction. J Exp Med 2006; 203:21652175.
  • 45
    Chen L, Quan S, Ou XH, Kong L: Decreased endometrial vascularity in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies-associated recurrent miscarriage during midluteal phase. Fertil Steril 2012; 98:14951502 e1491.
  • 46
    Empson M, Lassere M, Craig J, Scott J: Prevention of recurrent miscarriage for women with antiphospholipid antibody or lupus anticoagulant. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005; CD002859.
  • 47
    Lassere M, Empson M: Treatment of antiphospholipid syndrome in pregnancy–a systematic review of randomized therapeutic trials. Thromb Res 2004; 114:419426.
  • 48
    Nishino E, Takagi T, Mitsuda N, Masuhiro K, Iwata I, Iwata M, Tanizawa O: Effect of low-dose aspirin therapy on utero-placental blood flow and malondialdehyde (MDA) as an indicator of its therapeutic effect. Nihon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi 1990; 42:16411647.
  • 49
    Fishman P, Falach-Vaknine E, Zigelman R, Bakimer R, Sredni B, Djaldetti M, Shoenfeld Y: Prevention of fetal loss in experimental antiphospholipid syndrome by in vivo administration of recombinant interleukin-3. J Clin Invest 1993; 91:18341837.
  • 50
    Rai R, Cohen H, Dave M, Regan L: Randomised controlled trial of aspirin and aspirin plus heparin in pregnant women with recurrent miscarriage associated with phospholipid antibodies (or antiphospholipid antibodies). BMJ 1997; 314:253257.
  • 51
    Pattison NS, Chamley LW, Birdsall M, Zanderigo AM, Liddell HS, McDougall J: Does aspirin have a role in improving pregnancy outcome for women with the antiphospholipid syndrome? A randomized controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000; 183:10081012.
  • 52
    Lyden TW, Vogt E, Ng AK, Johnson PM, Rote NS: Monoclonal antiphospholipid antibody reactivity against human placental trophoblast. J Reprod Immunol 1992; 22:114.
  • 53
    Sthoeger ZM, Mozes E, Tartakovsky B: Anti-cardiolipin antibodies induce pregnancy failure by impairing embryonic implantation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1993; 90:64646467.
  • 54
    Guerin J, Sheng Y, Reddel S, Iverson GM, Chapman MG, Krilis SA: Heparin inhibits the binding of beta 2-glycoprotein I to phospholipids and promotes the plasmin-mediated inactivation of this blood protein. Elucidation of the consequences of the two biological events in patients with the anti-phospholipid syndrome. J Biol Chem 2002; 277:26442649.
  • 55
    Di Simone N, Caliandro D, Castellani R, Ferrazzani S, De Carolis S, Caruso A: Low-molecular weight heparin restores in-vitro trophoblast invasiveness and differentiation in presence of immunoglobulin G fractions obtained from patients with antiphospholipid syndrome. Hum Reprod 1999; 14:489495.
  • 56
    Di Simone N, Ferrazzani S, Castellani R, De Carolis S, Mancuso S, Caruso A: Heparin and low-dose aspirin restore placental human chorionic gonadotrophin secretion abolished by antiphospholipid antibody-containing sera. Hum Reprod 1997; 12:20612065.
  • 57
    Girardi G, Redecha P, Salmon JE: Heparin prevents antiphospholipid antibody-induced fetal loss by inhibiting complement activation. Nat Med 2004; 10:12221226.
  • 58
    Hills FA, Abrahams VM, Gonzalez-Timon B, Francis J, Cloke B, Hinkson L, Rai R, Mor G, Regan L, Sullivan M, Lam EW, Brosens JJ: Heparin prevents programmed cell death in human trophoblast. Mol Hum Reprod 2006; 12:237243.
  • 59
    Bose P, Black S, Kadyrov M, Weissenborn U, Neulen J, Regan L, Huppertz B: Heparin and aspirin attenuate placental apoptosis in vitro: implications for early pregnancy failure. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005; 192:2330.
  • 60
    Friedrichs GS, Kilgore KS, Manley PJ, Gralinski MR, Lucchesi BR: Effects of heparin and N-acetyl heparin on ischemia/reperfusion-induced alterations in myocardial function in the rabbit isolated heart. Circ Res 1994; 75:701710.
  • 61
    Rops AL, van der Vlag J, Lensen JF, Wijnhoven TJ, van den Heuvel LP, van Kuppevelt TH, Berden JH: Heparan sulfate proteoglycans in glomerular inflammation. Kidney Int 2004; 65:768785.
  • 62
    Wang L, Brown JR, Varki A, Esko JD: Heparin's anti-inflammatory effects require glucosamine 6-O-sulfation and are mediated by blockade of L- and P-selectins. J Clin Invest 2002; 110:127136.
  • 63
    Hochart H, Jenkins PV, Smith OP, White B: Low-molecular weight and unfractionated heparins induce a downregulation of inflammation: decreased levels of proinflammatory cytokines and nuclear factor-kappaB in LPS-stimulated human monocytes. Br J Haematol 2006; 133:6267.
  • 64
    Yavuz C, Karahan O: Do dose-related mechanisms exist for the angiogenic behaviours of heparin derivatives? Am J Reprod Immunol 2012; 68:185186.
  • 65
    Han CS, Mulla MJ, Brosens JJ, Chamley LW, Paidas MJ, Lockwood CJ, Abrahams VM: Aspirin and heparin effect on basal and antiphospholipid antibody modulation of trophoblast function. Obstet Gynecol 2011; 118:10211028.
  • 66
    Rosenberg VA, Buhimschi IA, Lockwood CJ, Paidas MJ, Dulay AT, Ramma W, Abdel-Razeq SS, Zhao G, Ahmad S, Ahmed A, Buhimschi CS: Heparin elevates circulating soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 immunoreactivity in pregnant women receiving anticoagulation therapy. Circulation 2011; 124:25432553.
  • 67
    Carroll TY, Mulla MJ, Han CS, Brosens JJ, Chamley LW, Giles I, Pericleous C, Rahman A, Sfakianaki AK, Paidas MJ, Abrahams VM: Modulation of trophoblast angiogenic factor secretion by antiphospholipid antibodies is not reversed by heparin. Am J Reprod Immunol 2011; 66:286296.
  • 68
    Sanson BJ, Lensing AW, Prins MH, Ginsberg JS, Barkagan ZS, Lavenne-Pardonge E, Brenner B, Dulitzky M, Nielsen JD, Boda Z, Turi S, Mac Gillavry MR, Hamulyak K, Theunissen IM, Hunt BJ, Buller HR: Safety of low-molecular-weight heparin in pregnancy: a systematic review. Thromb Haemost 1999; 81:668672.
  • 69
    Fejgin MD, Lourwood DL: Low molecular weight heparins and their use in obstetrics and gynecology. Obstet Gynecol Surv 1994; 49:424431.
  • 70
    Pettila V, Leinonen P, Markkola A, Hiilesmaa V, Kaaja R: Postpartum bone mineral density in women treated for thromboprophylaxis with unfractionated heparin or LMW heparin. Thromb Haemost 2002; 87:182186.
  • 71
    Triolo G, Ferrante A, Ciccia F, Accardo-Palumbo A, Perino A, Castelli A, Giarratano A, Licata G: Randomized study of subcutaneous low molecular weight heparin plus aspirin versus intravenous immunoglobulin in the treatment of recurrent fetal loss associated with antiphospholipid antibodies. Arthritis Rheum 2003; 48:728731.
  • 72
    Kutteh WH: Antiphospholipid antibody-associated recurrent pregnancy loss: treatment with heparin and low-dose aspirin is superior to low-dose aspirin alone. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1996; 174:15841589.
  • 73
    Ziakas PD, Pavlou M, Voulgarelis M: Heparin treatment in antiphospholipid syndrome with recurrent pregnancy loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol 2010; 115:12561262.
  • 74
    Noble LS, Kutteh WH, Lashey N, Franklin RD, Herrada J: Antiphospholipid antibodies associated with recurrent pregnancy loss: prospective, multicenter, controlled pilot study comparing treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin versus unfractionated heparin. Fertil Steril 2005; 83:684690.
  • 75
    Stephenson MD, Ballem PJ, Tsang P, Purkiss S, Ensworth S, Houlihan E, Ensom MH: Treatment of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) in pregnancy: a randomized pilot trial comparing low molecular weight heparin to unfractionated heparin. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2004; 26:729734.
  • 76
    Dulitzki M, Pauzner R, Langevitz P, Pras M, Many A, Schiff E: Low-molecular-weight heparin during pregnancy and delivery: preliminary experience with 41 pregnancies. Obstet Gynecol 1996; 87:380383.
  • 77
    Nelson-Piercy C, Letsky EA, de Swiet M: Low-molecular-weight heparin for obstetric thromboprophylaxis: experience of sixty-nine pregnancies in sixty-one women at high risk. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1997; 176:10621068.
  • 78
    Simchen MJ, Dulitzki M, Rofe G, Shani H, Langevitz P, Schiff E, Pauzner R: High positive antibody titers and adverse pregnancy outcome in women with antiphospholipid syndrome. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2011; 90:14281433.
  • 79
    Dunn AS, Kaboli P, Halfdanarson T, Chan H, Hubert R, Rosen S, White RH: Do patients followed in anticoagulation clinics for antiphospholipid syndrome meet criteria for the disorder? Thromb Haemost 2005; 94:548554.
  • 80
    Tuthill JI, Khamashta MA: Management of antiphospholipid syndrome. J Autoimmun 2009; 33:9298.
  • 81
    Ernest JM, Marshburn PB, Kutteh WH: Obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome: an update on pathophysiology and management. Semin Reprod Med 2011; 29:522539.
  • 82
    Mekinian A, Loire-Berson P, Nicaise-Roland P, Lachassinne E, Stirnemann J, Boffa MC, Chollet-Martin S, Carbillon L, Fain O: Outcomes and treatment of obstetrical antiphospholipid syndrome in women with low antiphospholipid antibody levels. J Reprod Immunol 2012; 94:222226.
  • 83
    Ruffatti A, Tonello M, Visentin MS, Bontadi A, Hoxha A, De Carolis S, Botta A, Salvi S, Nuzzo M, Rovere-Querini P, Canti V, Mosca M, Mitic G, Bertero MT, Pengo V, Boffa MC, Tincani A: Risk factors for pregnancy failure in patients with anti-phospholipid syndrome treated with conventional therapies: a multicentre, case-control study. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2011; 50:16841689.
  • 84
    Alijotas-Reig J, Ferrer-Oliveras R, Rodrigo-Anoro MJ, Farran-Codina I, Cabero-Roura L, Vilardell-Tarres M: Anti-beta(2)-glycoprotein-I and anti-phosphatidylserine antibodies in women with spontaneous pregnancy loss. Fertil Steril 2010; 93:23302336.
  • 85
    Lockshin MD, Kim M, Laskin CA, Guerra M, Branch DW, Merrill J, Petri M, Porter TF, Sammaritano L, Stephenson MD, Buyon J, Salmon JE: Prediction of adverse pregnancy outcome by the presence of lupus anticoagulant, but not anticardiolipin antibody, in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies. Arthritis Rheum 2012; 64:23112318.
  • 86
    Umehara N, Tanaka T: The incidence of various antiphospholipid antibodies, measured by commercial-based laboratory, with recurrent spontaneous abortion and the impact of their profiles on reproductive outcome with active anticoagulant therapy. ISRN Obstet Gynecol 2012; 2012:819356.
  • 87
    Ortel TL: Antiphospholipid syndrome: laboratory testing and diagnostic strategies. Am J Hematol 2012; 87(Suppl 1):S75S81.
  • 88
    de Laat B, Derksen RH, Urbanus RT, de Groot PG: IgG antibodies that recognize epitope Gly40-Arg43 in domain I of beta 2-glycoprotein I cause LAC, and their presence correlates strongly with thrombosis. Blood 2005; 105:15401545.
  • 89
    de Laat B, Pengo V, Pabinger I, Musial J, Voskuyl AE, Bultink IE, Ruffatti A, Rozman B, Kveder T, de Moerloose P, Boehlen F, Rand J, Ulcova-Gallova Z, Mertens K, de Groot PG: The association between circulating antibodies against domain I of beta2-glycoprotein I and thrombosis: an international multicenter study. J Thromb Haemost 2009; 7:17671773.
  • 90
    Banzato A, Pozzi N, Frasson R, De Filippis V, Ruffatti A, Bison E, Padayattil SJ, Denas G, Pengo V: Antibodies to Domain I of beta(2)Glycoprotein I are in close relation to patients risk categories in Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS). Thromb Res 2011; 128:583586.
  • 91
    Pelkmans L, de Laat B: Antibodies against domain I of beta2-glycoprotein I: the one and only? Lupus 2012; 21:769772.
  • 92
    Shoenfeld Y, Krause I, Kvapil F, Sulkes J, Lev S, von Landenberg P, Font J, Zaech J, Cervera R, Piette JC, Boffa MC, Khamashta MA, Bertolaccini ML, Hughes GR, Youinou P, Meroni PL, Pengo V, Alves JD, Tincani A, Szegedi G, Lakos G, Sturfelt G, Jonsen A, Koike T, Sanmarco M, Ruffatti A, Ulcova-Gallova Z, Praprotnik S, Rozman B, Lorber M, Vriezman VB, Blank M: Prevalence and clinical correlations of antibodies against six beta2-glycoprotein-I-related peptides in the antiphospholipid syndrome. J Clin Immunol 2003; 23:377383.
  • 93
    Cowchock S: Treatment of antiphospholipid syndrome in pregnancy. Lupus 1998; 7(Suppl 2):S95S97.
  • 94
    Vaquero E, Lazzarin N, Valensise H, Menghini S, Di Pierro G, Cesa F, Romanini C: Pregnancy outcome in recurrent spontaneous abortion associated with antiphospholipid antibodies: a comparative study of intravenous immunoglobulin versus prednisone plus low-dose aspirin. Am J Reprod Immunol 2001; 45:174179.
  • 95
    Perricone R, De Carolis C, Kroegler B, Greco E, Giacomelli R, Cipriani P, Fontana L, Perricone C: Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in pregnant patients affected with systemic lupus erythematosus and recurrent spontaneous abortion. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2008; 47:646651.
  • 96
    Silveira LH, Hubble CL, Jara LJ, Saway S, Martinez-Osuna P, Seleznick MJ, Angel J, O'Brien W, Espinoza LR: Prevention of anticardiolipin antibody-related pregnancy losses with prednisone and aspirin. Am J Med 1992; 93:403411.
  • 97
    Bramham K, Thomas M, Nelson-Piercy C, Khamashta M, Hunt BJ: First-trimester low-dose prednisolone in refractory antiphospholipid antibody-related pregnancy loss. Blood 2011; 117:69486951.
  • 98
    Hutton B, Sharma R, Fergusson D, Tinmouth A, Hebert P, Jamieson J, Walker M: Use of intravenous immunoglobulin for treatment of recurrent miscarriage: a systematic review. BJOG 2007; 114:134142.
  • 99
    Kwak JY, Quilty EA, Gilman-Sachs A, Beaman KD, Beer AE: Intravenous immunoglobulin infusion therapy in women with recurrent spontaneous abortions of immune etiologies. J Reprod Immunol 1995; 28:175188.
  • 100
    Kwak JY, Kwak FM, Ainbinder SW, Ruiz AM, Beer AE: Elevated peripheral blood natural killer cells are effectively downregulated by immunoglobulin G infusion in women with recurrent spontaneous abortions. Am J Reprod Immunol 1996; 35:363369.
  • 101
    Piette JC, Le Thi Huong D, Wechsler B: [Therapeutic use of intravenous immunoglobulins in the antiphospholipid syndrome]. Ann Med Interne (Paris) 2000; 151(Suppl 1):1S511S54.
  • 102
    Branch DW, Peaceman AM, Druzin M, Silver RK, El-Sayed Y, Silver RM, Esplin MS, Spinnato J, Harger J: A multicenter, placebo-controlled pilot study of intravenous immune globulin treatment of antiphospholipid syndrome during pregnancy. The Pregnancy Loss Study Group. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000; 182:122127.
  • 103
    Xiao J, Xiong J, Zhu F, He L: Effect of prednisone, aspirin, low molecular weight heparin and intravenous immunoglobulin on outcome of pregnancy in women with antiphospholipid syndrome. Exp Ther Med 2013; 5:287291.
  • 104
    Meroni PL, Raschi E, Testoni C, Tincani A, Balestrieri G, Molteni R, Khamashta MA, Tremoli E, Camera M: Statins prevent endothelial cell activation induced by antiphospholipid (anti-beta2-glycoprotein I) antibodies: effect on the proadhesive and proinflammatory phenotype. Arthritis Rheum 2001; 44:28702878.
  • 105
    Ferrara DE, Liu X, Espinola RG, Meroni PL, Abukhalaf I, Harris EN, Pierangeli SS: Inhibition of the thrombogenic and inflammatory properties of antiphospholipid antibodies by fluvastatin in an in vivo animal model. Arthritis Rheum 2003; 48:32723279.
  • 106
    Odiari EA, Mulla MJ, Sfakianaki AK, Paidas MJ, Stanwood NL, Gariepy A, Brosens JJ, Chamley LW, Abrahams VM: Pravastatin does not prevent antiphospholipid antibody-mediated changes in human first trimester trophoblast function. Hum Reprod 2012; 27:29332940.
  • 107
    Johann S, Zoller C, Haas S, Blumel G, Lipp M, Forster R: Sulfated polysaccharide anticoagulants suppress natural killer cell activity in vitro. Thromb Haemost 1995; 74:9981002.
  • 108
    Christopherson KW 2nd, Campbell JJ, Travers JB, Hromas RA: Low-molecular-weight heparins inhibit CCL21-induced T cell adhesion and migration. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2002; 302:290295.
  • 109
    Fritchley SJ, Kirby JA, Ali S: The antagonism of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) by heparin: examination of the blockade of class II MHC antigen and heat shock protein-70 expression. Clin Exp Immunol 2000; 120:247252.