Serum Proinflammatory Cytokine Responses to Influenza Virus Vaccine among Women during Pregnancy versus Non-Pregnancy
Article first published online: 1 APR 2013
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd
American Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Volume 70, Issue 1, pages 45–53, July 2013
How to Cite
Serum proinflammatory cytokine responses to influenza virus vaccine among women during pregnancy versus non-pregnancy. Am J Reprod Immunol 2013; 70: 45–53., , , , .
- Issue published online: 11 JUN 2013
- Article first published online: 1 APR 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 27 FEB 2013
- Manuscript Received: 5 FEB 2013
- Inflammatory response;
- proinflammatory cytokines;
This study aimed to comprehensively describe inflammatory responses to trivalent influenza virus vaccine (TIV) among pregnant women and determine whether responses differ compared to non-pregnancy.
Twenty-eight pregnant and 28 non-pregnant women were vaccinated. Serum cytokines were measured at baseline, and 1, 2, and 3 days post-vaccination. Anti-influenza antibody titers were measured at baseline and 1 month post-vaccination.
Overall, following vaccination, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin(IL)-6 increased significantly, peaking at 1 day post-vaccination (P's < 0.001). Pregnant versus non-pregnant women showed no differences in IL-6, TNF-α, or IL-1β responses. Pregnant women showed no change in IL-8 and increases in migration inhibitory factor (MIF), while non-pregnant showed decreases in both. Pregnancy did not significantly alter antibody responses.
Inflammatory responses to TIV are mild, transient, and generally similar in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Given the variability evidenced, vaccination may provide a useful model for studying individual differences in inflammatory response propensity.