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Keywords:

  • Primary recurrent miscarriage;
  • secondary recurrent miscarriage;
  • tumour necrosis factor alpha dynamics;
  • tumour necrosis factor alpha promoter polymorphism

Problem

Specific pro-inflammatory cytokine profiles in plasma may characterize women with recurrent miscarriage (RM) but the dynamics of the cytokine profiles with progressing pregnancy is largely unknown.

Method of study

Plasma was repeatedly sampled in the first trimester from 47 RM patients. The concentrations of five cytokines including tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were measured. TNF-α levels were correlated to carriage of five TNFA promoter polymorphisms.

Results

TNF-α levels increased (P = 0.014) with progressing pregnancy, with higher levels in secondary than primary RM (P = 0.042) but with no significant impact on outcome. Carriage of TNFA -863C and TNFA -1031T was associated with higher TNF-α levels, and the former was found more often in secondary than primary RM (P < 0.02).

Conclusion

Plasma TNF-α levels increase during early pregnancy in RM women regardless of outcome, but are higher in secondary than primary RM, which may be partly genetically determined.