Plasma TNF-α Levels are Higher in Early Pregnancy in Patients with Secondary Compared with Primary Recurrent Miscarriage
Article first published online: 9 MAY 2013
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd
American Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Volume 70, Issue 5, pages 347–358, November 2013
How to Cite
Plasma TNF-α levels are higher in early pregnancy in patients with secondary compared with primary recurrent miscarriage. Am J Reprod Immunol 2013; 70: 347–358, , , , .
- Issue published online: 9 OCT 2013
- Article first published online: 9 MAY 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 7 APR 2013
- Manuscript Received: 10 MAR 2013
- Primary recurrent miscarriage;
- secondary recurrent miscarriage;
- tumour necrosis factor alpha dynamics;
- tumour necrosis factor alpha promoter polymorphism
Specific pro-inflammatory cytokine profiles in plasma may characterize women with recurrent miscarriage (RM) but the dynamics of the cytokine profiles with progressing pregnancy is largely unknown.
Method of study
Plasma was repeatedly sampled in the first trimester from 47 RM patients. The concentrations of five cytokines including tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were measured. TNF-α levels were correlated to carriage of five TNFA promoter polymorphisms.
TNF-α levels increased (P = 0.014) with progressing pregnancy, with higher levels in secondary than primary RM (P = 0.042) but with no significant impact on outcome. Carriage of TNFA -863C and TNFA -1031T was associated with higher TNF-α levels, and the former was found more often in secondary than primary RM (P < 0.02).
Plasma TNF-α levels increase during early pregnancy in RM women regardless of outcome, but are higher in secondary than primary RM, which may be partly genetically determined.