Progesterone and Its Downstream Molecules as Blastocyst Implantation Essential Factors
Article first published online: 23 APR 2014
Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA
American Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Volume 72, Issue 2, pages 117–128, August 2014
How to Cite
Progesterone and its downstream molecules as blastocyst implantation essential factors. Am J Reprod Immunol 2014; 72: 117–128.
- Issue published online: 13 JUL 2014
- Article first published online: 23 APR 2014
- Manuscript Accepted: 15 MAR 2014
- Manuscript Received: 28 FEB 2014
- Blastocyst implantation essential factors;
- downstream molecules;
This review is to update the previous review (Am J Reprod Immunol, 63, 2010 and 413) on the research on blastocyst implantation essential factors (BIEFs). Focus of the current review is on progesterone and its downstream molecules in the process of blastocyst implantation. To understand the process of implantation, we need to know where and when the BIEFs are expressed and what they do. Progress in this research area is rapid, and its update is indeed necessary. The basic concept of BIEFs is that they have dual functions, one physiological and the other immunological (J Reprod Dev, 58, 2012 and 196). As we are still exploring the mechanism of implantation, available data are incomplete and human data are few. Thus, I will use information obtained through research on animal models, in vitro studies, cell lines, and some human studies where available. The ultimate goal of the review is to understand human blastocyst implantation.