Both authors equally contributed to this study.
Novel Morphological Findings of Human Sperm Removal by Leukocytes in In Vivo and In Vitro Conditions: Preliminary Study
Article first published online: 26 JUN 2014
© 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd
American Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Volume 72, Issue 4, pages 348–358, October 2014
How to Cite
Novel morphological findings of human sperm removal by leukocytes in in vivo and in vitro conditions: preliminary study. Am J Reprod Immunol 2014; 72: 348–358, , , , , , , , , .
- Issue published online: 9 SEP 2014
- Article first published online: 26 JUN 2014
- Manuscript Accepted: 31 MAY 2014
- Manuscript Received: 24 FEB 2014
- Ministry of Science and Higher Education. Grant Number: NN 407283539
- Pomeranian Medical University. Grant Number: FSN-322-12/13
- Escherichia coli ;
- extracellular traps;
- sperm phagocytosis
Biological significance of increased number of leukocytes in ejaculate remains a subject of controversy. The aim of this research was to describe the morphological characteristics of the sperm elimination by leukocytes in in vivo and in vitro conditions using natural stimulator of the immune system—uropathogenic Escherichia coli, O75:HNT, isolated from semen.
Method of study
The study was performed on ejaculated spermatozoa from normozoospermic men with leukocytospermia (n = 10, in vivo experiment) or without leukocytospermia (n = 15, in vitro experiment). Morphological observations were performed using light and scanning electron microscopy.
Sperm removal by active leukocytes mediated by traditional phagocytosis and generation of extracellular traps were observed in in vivo and in vitro experiments.
Our morphological data suggest that human germ cells activate leukocytes triggering both traditional phagocytosis and a novel trapping mechanism, followed by extensive sperm elimination.