Ethnic Variations in Cervical Cytokine Concentrations and Vaginal Flora During Pregnancy
Article first published online: 9 JUL 2014
© 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd
American Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Volume 73, Issue 2, pages 141–150, February 2015
How to Cite
Ethnic variations in cervical cytokine concentrations and vaginal flora during pregnancy. Am J Reprod Immunol 2015; 73: 141–150, , .
- Issue published online: 12 JAN 2015
- Article first published online: 9 JUL 2014
- Manuscript Accepted: 24 JUN 2014
- Manuscript Received: 19 MAR 2014
- . Grant Number: 1K23HD062340-01
- Genital immunity;
- HIV ;
- vaginal flora
Pregnancy-mediated changes in immunity may influence risk of HIV-1 acquisition. This risk appears greatest among non-Caucasian women.
Method of study
Pregnant women with low risk of immune disruption were enrolled in a prospective observational cohort. Study visits occurred each trimester and postpartum. Semi-quantitative vaginal cultures and concentrations of cervical cytokines were compared between Caucasian and non-Caucasian women.
In the second trimester, non-Caucasian women were more likely to be colonized with Gardnerella vaginalis (62% versus 25%, P = 0.02) and non-pigmented anaerobic gram-negative rods (43% versus 8%, P = 0.01). Mycoplasma hominis was more frequently isolated in non-Caucasian women throughout the second (29% versus 4%, P = 0.03) and third trimesters (35% versus 6%, P = 0.04). Non-Caucasian women had higher median interleukin (IL)-10 concentrations throughout the second (128 pg/mL versus 7 pg/mL, P = 0.05) and third trimesters (224 pg/mL versus 7 pg/mL, P = 0.05).
Non-Caucasian women experienced a greater diversity of microorganisms and increased IL-10 in the second and third trimesters.