Patterns of weight gain in pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus: An observational study

Authors

  • Zoe A. Stewart,

    1. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
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  • Euan M. Wallace,

    1. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
    2. Women's and Children's Program, Southern Health, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
    3. The Ritchie Centre, MIMR, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
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  • Carolyn A. Allan

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Diabetes, Southern Health, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
    • Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
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Correspondence: Dr Carolyn A. Allan, Department of Endocrinology, Southern Health, PO Box 5152, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia.

Email: carolyn.allan@princehenrys.org

Abstract

Objective

To quantify late-pregnancy weight gain in women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and to determine factors associated with gestational weight gain.

Study design

A prospective clinical audit of 212 women (115 GDM and 97 non-GDM) who were weighed at each antenatal visit from 24–32 weeks gestation until delivery. Women received routine antenatal clinical care. For women with GDM, this included a 2-h lifestyle counselling session, capillary blood glucose testing and frequent clinical review.

Results

Women with GDM gained less weight than nondiabetic women (GDM: 1.18 kg (1.6%) [range, 3.8–7.1 kg]; non-GDM: 4.0 kg (4.8%) [range, 0.7–18.5 kg]; P < 0.0001). Weight gain was influenced by body mass index and country of birth. Women with GDM showed reduced weight gain at weeks 1–4 postrecruitment, relative to weeks 4–8 (0.04 kg/week vs 0.45 kg/week; < 0.0001). Nondiabetic women gained weight at a constant rate. GDM status was the only independent predictor of postrecruitment weight gain.

Conclusions

Application of a model of care for GDM (lifestyle advice and regular clinical review, in addition to home glucose monitoring) may reduce weight gain in women with GDM. The potential for applying a modified version of this model to all women in pregnancy warrants further study.

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