Jacqueline Maley, “The 10 Issues that will decide the election”, Sydney Morning Herald, 4 January 2013.
“Australia's aid diplomacy and the Pacific Islands: change and continuity in middle power foreign policy”, Global Change, Peace and Security, Vol. 21, 1, (2009), pp. 115–130.,
The 8 October speech is essentially domestic politics and thus (unfortunately) sits outside of this review. The speech was widely praised abroad and has received over two million hits on YouTube.
“The Pacific: from ‘Arc of Instability’ to ‘Arc of Responsibility’ and then to ‘Arc of Opportunity’?”, Security Challenges, Vol. 8, 4, (2012), pp. 1–12.,
Houston's background made him an excellent choice. Since the Tampa incident of August 2001, the Australian Defence Force had been involved in border protection through Operation Relex where around 500 naval personnel per year patrol the waters intercepting Suspected Illegal Entry Vessels (SIEVs). During February 2002 the Senate's Select Committee into a Certain Maritime Incident investigated the sinking of the SIEV X and the Howard government's “children overboard” claims made during the 2001 election, and Air Chief Marshall Angus Houston, then Acting Chief of Defence, gave evidence that contradicted the Howard government's claims. Houston became chief of the Australian Defence Force in June 2005 and remained in that role until July 2011. For a summary of the politics of the 2002 Senate Inquiry, see Tony Kevin, A Certain Maritime Incident (Melbourne, 2004), pp.107–128.
For the full report, see <http://expertpanelonasylumseekers.dpmc.gov.au/report>.
Michelle Grattan, “PM's Pacific Solution Mark II”, 14 August 2012 <http://www.smh.com.au/opinion/political-news/pms-pacific-solution-mark-ii-20120813-24508.html> Online 31 January 2013.
Asylum seekers detained by Australia in 2010–2011 numbered 8,874 people, termed Irregular Maritime Arrivals (IMAs). In 2011–2012 this rose to 12,967. Department of Immigration and Citizenship Annual Report 2011–2012, p.191. <http://www.immi.gov.au/about/reports/annual/2011-12/pdf/report-on-performance.pdf>. Online 9 February 2013. In comparison, during the 2011 calendar year European nations recorded the following claims for asylum: Netherlands — 14,600; United Kingdom — 26,430; Sweden — 29,670; Italy — 34,115; Germany — 53,255; France — 57,335. European Commission, Eurostat <http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/statistics_explained/index.php/Asylum_statistics> Online 9 February 2013.
Mungo McCallum, “‘Stop the boats’ has become bipartisan policy”, The Drum, 2 July 2012 <http://www.abc.net.au/unleashed/4105116.html> Online 9 February 2013.
In a diplomatic faux pas Gillard had only raised the proposed plan with the President, Jose Ramos Horta, who performs a largely ceremonial role for the nation and is not part of the government. Mark Dodd, “East Timor says it straight: no to asylum centre”, Australian, 24 January 2011 <http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/nation/east-timor-says-it-straight-no-to-asylum-centre/story-e6frg6nf-1225993303899> Online 9 February 2012.
The agreement between Australia and Malaysia was for Australia to accept 4,000 UNHCR declared refugees from Malaysia, and to return 800 asylum seekers to Malaysia. The “people swap” was declared illegal by the High Court on 31 August 2011. See “Issues in Australian Foreign Policy, January to June 2011”, Australian Journal of Politics and History, Vol. 57, 4, (December 2011), pp. 597–613, at 606–8.and ,
Tony Kevin, Reluctant Rescuers (Canberra, 2012), p.xix.
Matthew Franklin, “Boat drama fails to end asylum-seeker deadlock in parliament”, Australian, 28 June 2012.
<http://expertpanelonasylumseekers.dpmc.gov.au/terms>. Over 550 submissions were received and the panel indeed consulted very widely in an exceedingly short six-week period as it had to report before the August Parliamentary session resumed.
Gillard, cited in Michelle Grattan, “PM's Pacific Solution Mark II’, Age, 14 August 2012.
Parliament of Australia, “Boat Arrivals in Australian Since 1976” <http://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/pubs/BN/2012-2013/BoatArrivals> Online 8 February 2013.
For a nuanced and compassionate discussion that balances humanitarian concerns, border security and international legal obligations, see Kevin, Reluctant Rescuers.
These people remain subject to deportation to Manus or Nauru in the future.
Paul Maley and Sid Maher, “Labor asylum-seeker solution swamped”, Australian, 22 November 2012.
Ben Eltham, “Manus Legal challenge is Bad News for Canberra”, 22 January 2013 <http://newmatilda.com/2013/01/22/manus-legal-challenge-bad-news-canberra>.
Department of Immigration and Citizenship, Fact Sheet 86, March 2012 <http://www.immi.gov.au/media/fact-sheets/86overstayers-and-other-unlawful-non-citizens.htm> Online 15 January 2013.
Federal Liberal Party of Australia, January 2013, Our Plan <http://lpa.webcontent.s3.amazonaws.com/realsolutions/LPA%20Policy%20Booklet%20210x210_final%20LIB.pdf>, pp.47–48. Online 15 January 2013.
Kirsty Needham, “Nauru signs refugee convention”, 18 June 2011 <http://www.theage.com.au/national/nauru-signs-un-refugee-convention-20110617-1g830.html>. Online 27 January 2013.
Eltham, “Manus Legal challenge is Bad News for Canberra”.
Michael Fullilove, “A place at the top table”, Griffith Review, No. 28, May 2010 Online (p.1) <https://griffithreview.com/edition-28-still-the-lucky-country/a-place-at-the-top-table> Online 27 January 2013.
WEOG comprises: Western European states, Greece, Turkey, Israel, Canada, the USA, Australia and New Zealand.
The Eastern European bloc did not have a position in the 2012 elections. General Assembly GA/11303 Sixty-seventh General Assembly Plenary, 27th Meeting (AM) General Assembly Elects Argentina, Australia, Luxembourg, Republic Of Korea, Rwanda As Non-Permanent Members Of Security Council <http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs//2012/ga11303.doc.htm> Online 20 January 2012.
UNAA, “Australia's Seat On The UN Security Council” <http://www.unaa.org.au/australia-elected-to-seat-on-un-security-council-for-2013-14.html>. Finland's former President Martti Ahtisaari is a well-known international figure and and member of the international notables group “The Elders”. He was awarded the 2008 Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts in negotiating solutions to long-term conflicts across the world, including Kosovo. Martti Ahtisaari Biography Online <http://theelders.org/sites/default/files/martti_ahtisaari_-_biography_-_updated_august_2012.pdf> Online 9 February.
Julia Gillard, Remarks to Staff at the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 19 October 2012, <http://www.pm.gov.au/press-office/remarks-staff-department-foreign-affairs-and-trade>.
ABC News, “Gillard addresses UN General Assembly” 27 September 2012 <http://www.abc.net.au/news/2012-09-27/gillard-addresses-un-general-assembly/4282652> Online 9 February.
Australia Network, “Newsline”, Interview with Jim Middleton, 22 October 2012 <http://ministers.dfat.gov.au/marles/transcripts/2012/rm_tr_121022.html> Online 9 February 2013.
Australian Minister for Foreign Affairs, the Hon. Bob Carr, Conference at the Lowy Institute, 27 July 2012 <http://www.foreignminister.gov.au/speeches/2012/bc_sp_120727.html> Online 9 February 2013.
Brad Norington, “Australia wins seat on United Nations Security Council”, Australian, 19 October 2012.
DFAT, “Australia and Africa” <http://www.dfat.gov.au/geo/africa/> Online 9 February 2013.
Opening of new Embassy in Senegal 9 May 2012 <http://foreignminister.gov.au/releases/2012/bc_mr_120509.html> Online 2 February 2013.
DFAT Fact Sheet, “Senegal” <http://www.dfat.gov.au/geo/fs/sene.pdf>. Australian exports to Senegal are principally civil engineering equipment, pumps and machinery and are valued at just over $55 million. Imports from Senegal to Australia amount to a grand total of $402,000. According to Bob Carr, six Australian Stock Exchange listed companies have mining interests in Senegal.
AusAID, “Mining for Development” <http://www.ausaid.gov.au/aidissues/mining/Pages/home.aspx> Online 9 February 2013.
Australia commits to closer ties with West Africa <http://www.trademinister.gov.au/releases/2012/ce_mr_120615.html> Online 9 February 2013.
ABC Radio National, “Tony Abbott UN Security Council Win”, 19 October 2012 <http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/breakfast/un-security-council-win-tony-abbott/4322208> Online 9 February 2013.
Australian Government, About the Australia in the Asia Century White Paper, <http://asiancentury.dpmc.gov.au/about> Online 9 February 2013.
In 2012 the Irish government spelt out this traditional relationship: “As part of the process of developing a new White Paper, a Green Paper on Defence will be published. This is intended to elicit a mature and informed debate and underpin a broad consultative process, which will inform our future Defence policy.” Department of Defence and Defence Forces Strategy Statement 2011–2014, <http://www.defence.ie/WebSite.nsf/72804bb4760386f380256c610055a16b/1820c82ff2b38b4c802579e30032ec2a/$FILE/Statement%20of%20Strategy%202011-2014.pdf> p. 3. Online 8 January 2013. The process is not, however, always so linear. For example, in February 2008 in the Defence Portfolio, the then Minister Joel Fitzgibbon announced a Defence White Paper had been commissioned, the composition of its board and the timeframe it was meant to address. The White Paper was released in May 2009 by Prime Minister Rudd. No Green paper was ever drafted. See <http://www.defence.gov.au/whitepaper/index.htm> Online 4 February 2013.
Australian Government <http://asiancentury.dpmc.gov.au/about> Online 9 February 2013.
Graeme Dobell, Asia White Paper: Process and Politics <http://www.lowyinterpreter.org/post/2012/10/29/Asia-White-Paper-Process-and-politics.aspx> Online 9 February 2013.
Australia in the Asian Century <http://asiancentury.dpmc.gov.au/submissions>. Online 5 January 2013.
Paul Keating, Engagement : Australia Faces the Asia-Pacific (Sydney, 2000).
Julia Gillard, White Paper, Foreword <http://asiancentury.dpmc.gov.au/white-paper/foreword>.
Tim Colebatch, “Under pressure, Swan made the right call to drop budget promise”, 22 December 2012 <http://www.smh.com.au/opinion/political-news/under-pressure-swan-made-the-right-call-to-drop-budget-promise-20121221-2brj1.html> Online 20 January 2013.
This paragraph is a summation of the five main chapters of the White Paper.
Mark Kenny, “PM Julia Gillard announces $50 million funding to fight slave trade at summit at East Asia Summit”, Herald Sun, 20 November 2012.
South China Morning Post, “Obama to Dive into South China Sea Turmoil”, 20 November 2012 <http://www.scmp.com/news/asia/article/1086579/obama-dive-south-china-sea-turmoil> Online 3 February 2013.
DFAT, Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Negotiations <http://www.dfat.gov.au/fta/rcep/> Online 9 February 2013.
Andrew Carr, “Asian Century White Paper: Defence WP preview?”, 30 October 2012 <http://www.lowyinterpreter.org/post/2012/10/30/Asian-Century-White-Paper-Defence-White-Paper-preview.aspx> Online 9 February 2013.
Julia Gillard, Speech to the Gala Dinner – Fortieth Anniversary of Diplomatic Relations Between Australia and The People's Republic Of China, 12 December 2012, Prime Minister, Parliament House, Canberra <http://www.pm.gov.au/press-office/speech-gala-dinner-fortieth-anniversary-diplomatic-relations-between-australia-and-peop> Online 3 February 2013.
Press Release, Foreign Minister's Office, AUSMIN 2012 communiqué <http://foreignminister.gov.au/releases/2012/bc_mr_121114.html>, online 12 February 2013; for the importance of an AUSMIN communiqué, and a description of the 2011 San Francisco meeting, see , “Issues in Australian Foreign Policy July to December 2011”, Australian Journal of Politics and History, Vol. 58, 2, (June 2012), p. 269.
Prime Minister Gillard announced $1 million in malaria funding at the East Asia Summit. See Mark Kenny, “PM Julia Gillard announces $50 million funding to fight slave trade at summit at East Asia Summit”, Herald Sun, 20 November 2012.
Prime Minister Media Release, “Australia Joins G20 Leadership Team”, 3 December 2012 <http://www.pm.gov.au/press-office/australia-joins-g20-leadership-team> Online 4 February 2013. The G20 was held in June in Mexico (Los Cabos) and was covered in the Australian Journal of Politics and History of the first part of the year. Russia will host APEC in 2013 in St Petersburg. There was no CHOGM in 2012. The next CHOGM is in 2013 in Sri Lanka. APEC will be held in Bali, Indonesia in 2013, then China in 2014, Philippines in 2015 and Peru in 2016.
CBS News, “Vladivostok locals get no benefit from APEC summit; a virtual tour of the APEC facilities” is at <http://www.apec2012.ru/infographics/20120126/462357178.html> Online 4 February 2013.
The annexes are: Towards Innovative Growth; Strengthening APEC Energy Security; APEC List Of Environmental Goods; Promoting Cross-Border Education Cooperation; and Fighting Corruption and Ensuring Transparency.
The Japanese began this shift from national dress for the leaders’ photo in 2010 with “smart casual”. Despite the clear opportunity for making some of the most powerful and important leaders on the planet look completely ridiculous in hibiscus patterns at the 2011 summit (in Honolulu), Obama went for business suits, with gifts of Hawaiian shirts. Similarly, Vladimir Putin missed a great opportunity by not insisting on Cossack costumes and boots.
Stephanie Peatling, “Gillard to leave APEC because of father's death”, 8 September 2012 <http://www.smh.com.au/opinion/political-news/gillard-to-leave-apec-because-of-fathers-death-20120908-25ktc.html> Online 4 February 2013.
“Issues in Australian Foreign Policy, January to June 2011”, Australian Journal of Politics and History, Vol. 57, 4, (December 2011), p. 601.and ,
Other international deployments occur in: Egypt — twenty-five with the Multinational Observer Force (MFO) in Sinai; Iraq — two with the UN Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI); Middle East — twelve with the UN Truce Supervision Organisation (UNTSO); and the UN's newest member state of South Sudan — seventeen supporting the UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS). See: <http://www.defence.gov.au/op/index.htm> Online 30 January 2013.
The UN Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) assumed the powers of government in trust as the International Force for East Timor (INTERFET) drew down. The latest UN mission since 2006, the UN Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT), has primarily been a police-led mission with a focus on the creation of an effective and responsible police force in Timor-Leste.
Charles Hawksley and Nichole Georgeou, “Pillar II in Focus: The Responsibility to Assist — Police-capacity building in Timor-Leste and the 2012 parliamentary elections” <http://www.r2pasiapacific.org/index.html?page=187568> Online 10 February, 2013.
Gordon Peake, “An Increased Spotlight: Australia in Timor-Leste”, Security Challenges, Vol 8, 4 (Summer 2012), p.80.
See Hawksley and Georgeou, “Pillar II in Focus”.
In contrast, the first Rudd government meeting in Madang in March 2008 sent five cabinet ministers and four from the outer ministry (nine in total), while PNG sent fourteen in total. Those who attended from Australia were Foreign Minister Bob Carr; Chris Bowen (Immigration and Citizenship); Craig Emerson (Trade); Jason Clare (Defence Material); Richard Marles (Parliamentary Secretary for Pacific Islands Affairs and Foreign Affairs). See Hawksley “Australia's Aid Diplomacy and the Pacific Islands”, pp.123–124.
The Twenty-First Papua New Guinea – Australia Ministerial Forum, 6 December 2012 <http://foreignminister.gov.au/releases/2012/bc_mr_121206.html> Online 10 February, 2013.
Sen the Hon Bob Carr, Ratu Inoke Kubuabola, The Hon Murrary McCully, “Foreign Minister's Trilateral Meeting: Joint Statement”, 30 July 2102 <http://www.foreignminister.gov.au/releases/2012/bc_mr_120730.html> Online 10 February 2013.
Fourth Australia-Japan Foreign and Defence Consultations, 14 September 2012 <http://foreignminister.gov.au/releases/2012/bc_mr_120914a.html> Online 10 February 2013. To a large extent this meeting carried on from the Japanese initiative, the Pacific Islands Leader's Meeting (PALM) of March 2012, which indicated Japan was looking to the US and Australia to secure the sealanes of the Pacific Islands and its access to fisheries.
Australian Government, The Australian National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security 2012–2018 (Canberra, 8 March, 2012), p.19.
For example Papua New Guinea's parliament has only two female representatives in its 109-seat parliament, and Solomon Islands just one woman in its fifty-seat parliament.
Australian Government, AusAID, 7 April 2012, “16 Days of Activism ends on Human Rights Day”, <http://www.ausaid.gov.au/HotTopics/Pages/Display.aspx?QID=319> Online 10 February, 2013.
Australia's Global Ambassador for Women and Girls, “Speeches 2012” <http://www.dfat.gov.au/women/speeches.html> Online 10 February, 2013; “Bipartisan Delegation to Promote Gender Equity in the Pacific”, Solomon Times Online, 13 December, 2012, <http://www.solomontimes.com/news/bipartisan-delegation-to-promote-gender-equality-in-the-pacific/6707> Online 10 February, 2013.
“White Ribbon Day Focus on Stopping Violence against Women”, Solomon Times Online, 22 November, 2012, <http://www.solomontimes.com/news/white-ribbon-day-focus-on-stopping-violence-against-women/7406> Online 10 February, 2013.
Nicole George, “Women, Gender and ‘Voice’ at the Pacific Islands Forum”, East Asia Forum, 1 September 2012, available on-line: <http://www.eastasiaforum.org/2012/09/01/women-gender-and-voice-at-the-pacific-islands-forum/> Online 10 February 2013.
Radio Australia, “Australia commits $320m to help end Pacific gender inequality”, 31 August 2012 <http://www.radioaustralia.net.au/international/radio/program/pacific-beat/australia-commits-320m-to-help-end-pacific-gender-inequality/1008676>.
“Bipartisan Delegation to Promote Gender Equity in the Pacific”, Solomon Times Online, 13 December, 2012, <http://www.solomontimes.com/news/bipartisan-delegation-to-promote-gender-equality-in-the-pacific/6707> Online 10 February, 2013.