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Abstract

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  2. Abstract

This article examines the impact of European integration between 1961 and 1975 on national and imperial consciousness in Britain. It suggests that the end of imperial sentiment that was brought about by greater involvement in Europe did not produce a strong or deep attachment to the idea of European integration. Arguments about the need for European integration to transcend war in Europe tended to reinforce a sense of Commonwealth commonality for the British rather than a sense of European commonality. Although the Empire and Commonwealth had become a mere source of nostalgia in British consciousness by 1975, the weak support for European integration continues to condition British attitudes to European integration to this day. Indeed, in the current Eurosceptic climate, the Dominions are making a return to British political consciousness.

 

  1. 1

    W. Hague, “Britain and Australia – making the most of global opportunity”, Fourth John Howard Lecture, Sydney, 17 January 2013 <http://bartondeakin.com.au/briefs/2013_John_Howard_Lecture.html>.

  2. 2

    G. Sheridan, “Beginning of a more beautiful friendship”, Australian, 27 December 2007.

  3. 3

    J. Forsyth, “The New Colonials can raise our sights beyond the Channel”, The Spectator, 18 July 2013.

  4. 4

    D. Hannan, “I'll go to the ends of the earth to argue against the EU”, The Telegraph, 6 June 2012.

  5. 5

    S. Ward, Australia and the British Embrace: the Decline of the Imperial Ideal (Melbourne, 2001); see also P. Mein Smith, A Concise History of New Zealand (Cambridge, 2011).

  6. 6

    S. Vasilopoulou, “Continuity and Change in the Study of Euroscepticism: plus ça change?”, Journal of Common Market Studies, Vol. 51, 1 (2013), pp.145–68.

  7. 7

    S. Usherwood and N. Startin, “Euroscepticism as a Persistent Phenomenon”, Journal of Common Market Studies, Vol. 51, 1 (2013), pp.1–16.

  8. 8

    For a full treatment of English nationalism and European integration, see B. Wellings, Euroscepticism and English Nationalism: Losing the Peace (Bern, 2012).

  9. 9

    P. James, Nation Formation: Towards an Abstract Theory of Community (London, 1996).

  10. 10

    On her 1954 tour of Australia (3 February – 1 April) the Queen made 100 speeches, averaging five engagements per day, spending fifty-seven hours in aeroplanes and 130 hours in cars, clocking up 10,000 air miles and 2,000 miles overland. This excludes statistics for the Fijian and New Zealand legs of this tour. See National Museum of Australia, Royal Romance: Queen Elizabeth's 1954 Tour of Australia (Canberra, 2004), p.9.

  11. 11

    Dominion, 14 January 1963.

  12. 12

    Ibid.

  13. 13

    Edward Said, Culture and Imperialism (London, 1993), p.12.

  14. 14

    Paul Gilroy, There Ain't No Black in the Union Jack: the Cultural Politics of Race and Nation (London, 2002 [1987]).

  15. 15

    D. Cannadine, Ornamentalism: How the British Saw their Empire (London, 2001).

  16. 16

    B. Porter, The Absent-minded Imperialists: Empire, Society and Culture in Britain (Oxford, 2004).

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    S. Ward, “Echoes of Empire', History Workshop Journal, Vol. 62, 1 (2006), pp.264–78.

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    U. Özkirimli, Contemporary Debates on Nationalism: a Critical Engagement (Basingstoke, 2005), p.30.

  19. 19

    K. Kumar, The Making of English National Identity (Cambridge, 2003).

  20. 20

    N. Mandela, Long Walk to Freedom (London, 1994), pp.43–4.

  21. 21

    National Archives (UK): DO 119/1077.

  22. 22

    Melbourne Age, 4 December 1936.

  23. 23

    National Archives (UK): HO 384/81.

  24. 24

    Mass Observation Archive, FR526 “Conference on Federal Union”, December 1940.

  25. 25

    Mass Observation Archive, FR1094, “Feelings about the Australian People”, February 1942.

  26. 26

    Ibid.

  27. 27

    Mass Observation Archive, FR1158, “Feelings about the British Empire”, March 1943.

  28. 28

    Ibid.

  29. 29

    Ibid.

  30. 30

    Mass Observation Archive, FR526 “Conference on Federal Union”, December 1940.

  31. 31

    “Half Britain does not know the Commonwealth” [Part 1], Daily Graphic, 2 November 1948.

  32. 32

    “Half Britain does not know the Commonwealth” [Part 2], Daily Graphic, 3 November 1948.

  33. 33

    A. Aughey, The Politics of Englishness (Manchester, 2007).

  34. 34

    “Half Britain does not know the Commonwealth” [Part 1].

  35. 35

    Ibid. [Part 2].

  36. 36

    Ibid. [Part 1].

  37. 37

    Lord Home, The Way the Wind Blows (Glasgow, 1978), p.104.

  38. 38

    Statement in the “Address in Reply” debate, New Zealand House of Representatives, 20 June 1962.

  39. 39

    The Times, 8 May 1962.

  40. 40

    Evening Post, 20 June 1962.

  41. 41

    R. Dewey Jr., British National Identity and Opposition to Membership of Europe: the Anti-marketeers (Manchester, 2009).

  42. 42

    Scottish National Party, Aims and Policy of the Scottish National Party (Glasgow, 1962), pp.4–6.

  43. 43

    Cited in S. Heffer, Like the Roman. The Life of Enoch Powell (London, 1998), p.336.

  44. 44

    Cited in D. Healey, The Time of My Life (London, 1989), p.211.

  45. 45

    European Movement, Europe Unites: The Hague Congress and After, with a Foreword by Winston Churchill (London, 1949), p.viii.

  46. 46

    Ibid.

  47. 47

    F. Giles, “Historic Choice”, The Sunday Times, 6 May 1962.

  48. 48

    National Archives of Australia (NAA), M2576/87.

  49. 49

    A. Geddes, The European Union and British Politics (Basingstoke, 2004), p.192.

  50. 50

    NAA, M2576/87.

  51. 51

    NAA, M2576/88.

  52. 52

    Ibid.

  53. 53

    Ibid.

  54. 54

    NAA, M2608/18

  55. 55

    NAA, M2576/88.

  56. 56

    Ibid.

  57. 57

    NAA, M2576/87.

  58. 58

    Archives New Zealand: T1 435 61/5/4/2/1, EEC Press Cuttings.

  59. 59

    ABHS 7148, Press Release, 20 September 1962.

  60. 60

    NAA, M2576/87.

  61. 61

    A. Benvenuti, “Layin’ Low and Sayin’ Nuffin’: Australia's policy towards Britain's second bid to join the European Economic Community (1966–67)”, Australian Economic History Review, Vol. 46, 2 (2006), pp.155–75.

  62. 62

    Dewey Jr., British National Identity.

  63. 63

    The Times, 25 April 1966. The timing of this editorial on the anniversary of the first landings at Gallipoli was harsh.

  64. 64

    G. Brown, In My Way: the Political Memoirs of Lord George Brown (London, 1971), p.207.

  65. 65

    Ibid.

  66. 66

    Ibid., pp.206–08.

  67. 67

    Ibid., pp.209.

  68. 68

    Ibid., p.210.

  69. 69

    A. Roth, Sir Harold Wilson. Yorkshire Walter Mitty (London, 1977), p.260.

  70. 70

    H. Wilson, The Labour Government, 1964–70: a Personal Record (Harmondsworth, 1974), p.428.

  71. 71

    Ibid., p.427.

  72. 72

    Ibid., p.422.

  73. 73

    A. Benvenuti, “Facing the Inevitable: Britain's entry into the European Community and Australia's policy, 1970–72”, Australian Journal of Politics and History, Vol. 53, 2 (2007), pp.251–66.

  74. 74

    T. Weal, “The Second Battle of Britain”, British Library of Political and Economic Sciences, SHORE 9/44 [Miscellaneous].

  75. 75

    Ibid.

  76. 76

    Ibid.

  77. 77

    British Library of Political and Economic Sciences, SHORE/10/40 [Common Market]. Wilson, Harold, 1974, “Speech to the London Mayors' Association”, 7 December 1974.

  78. 78

    National Archives (UK), PREM 16/403.

  79. 79

    B. Castle, The Castle Diaries, 1974–76 (London, 1976), p.406.

  80. 80

    Britain in Europe, Referendum on the European Community (Common Market): why you should vote yes (London, 1975), p.3.

  81. 81

    Ibid.

  82. 82

    M. Garnett, From Anger to Apathy: the British Experience since 1975 (London, 2007).

  83. 83

    Cited in The Guardian Weekly, 27 May 2011, p.22.